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401210 Health Variations Question: You are to develop a concept map and answer three questions related to Acute Severe Asthma. References are to include three (3) recent, relevant journal articles as well as textbook material and evidence-based resources (to a total of at least 6 references).   The concept map must be computer generated.When researching the topic, use the pathophysiology template that is on the unit vUWS site to assist you in organising your information. The template will also assist in identifying key concepts and their relationships. Concept boxes should have titles with relevant content summarised within the box. The summarised content may be in point format and size 10 font (Arial or Times New Roman) may be used on the concept map.Concept boxes must be linked using lines and linking words/phrases to demonstrate logical relationships between concepts. For conciseness, numbers may be used to replace traditional APA referencing within concept boxes. If you use numbers, you must include a reference list in numerical order, corresponding to your references immediately after the concept map.Critical thinking and creativity are essential components of the concept map. The map design needs to be visually stimulating. Answer: Asthma is a common prolonged syndrome of the lung air route that comprises a sophisticated link of airflow block, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and an underlying infection. The illness can extremely vary on different patients. Prolonged signs of disease can arise from bronchospasm or patient’s reaction during the bronchodilator treatment. Chronic and acute tenderness can upset the air corridor capacity, airflow and also fundamental bronchial hyperresponsiveness, which improves vulnerability to bronchospasm.    Thus, asthma is a long-lasting inflammatory illness of an airway in which numerous cells and cellular features play a role, specifically; eosinophils, mast cells, T lymphocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, and epithelial cells. This swelling causes regular incidents of breathlessness, coughing, and stiffness of chest. Hence, the events are linked with extensive but mutable airflow hitch that is commonly flexible either with treatment or spontaneously (Carr, Berdnikovs, Simon, Bochner & Rosenwasser, 2016, pp. pp. 21). The main causes of an inflammatory process which make individuals to became vulnerable to its impact is hotly debated topic among scholars.  The appearance of asthma is an interactive yet multifaceted procedure that relies on the interaction between the environmental exposures and host elements predominantly heredities that happen at an imperative time in the expansion of the immune structure.  Host dynamics include inborn resistance, sex, and genetics while ecological aspects comprise respiratory infections, allergens, and other environmental exposures such as pollution and lifestyle (Saint, Semple, Sinha & Hawcutt, 2018, pp. 210). Hyperinflated lungs happen when air gets stuck in the organ and causes the organ to overinflate. Hyperinflated lungs can be instigated by a blockage in the air ways or by air sacs that are less variable, which interfere with the discharge of air from the lungs. Hyperinflated lungs are frequently seen in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, a disorder that comprises emphysema. Definite lung difficulties such as cystic fibrosis and asthma also can cause hyperinflation (Memon, Parkash, Khan, Gowa & Bai, 2016, pp .243). It is worth noting that only small percentage of patients which have historical asthma disorders. Wheezing can occurs in some patients, particularly during the exacerbations. Sometimes severe asthma can present severely with the respiratory disease or abrupt start of shortness of breath.  Important clinical examinations are  tachypnea ( rapid breathing ),  prolonged phase of respiration, hyperinflation where the chest may become barrel-shaped owing to air catching, wheezing a musical sort sound received through the stethoscope) is hardly  present, and sign of  heart failure such has peripheral oedema (swelling) may be present in progressive illness.  In order to diagnose the acute asthma and examine it severity, several tests should be done including blood gas tests and chest x-ray  (Saint, Semple, Sinha & Hawcutt, 2018, pp. 213). Smith shows symptoms of the diseases with an incapability to speak a sentence in one breath, reduced breath sounds and prevalent wheeze which are some of the symptoms of the Asthma.  Another test such as chest x-ray proves a positive test for the disease as it shows inflated lungs. Also, the arterial blood gas examination to measure oxygen interchange shows some deficient such as lower or equal to the 60mmHg PaO2 despite supplemental oxygen at 60. Some of the complications of severe acute asthma which is likely to develop are collapse lung (Pneumothorax), which can be life-threatening in individuals who have severe disease, as the function of the lung is already comprised. It is uncommon but very serious when it happens.  Another complication is heart problems where the disease can increase the pressure in the arteries that connect heart and lungs. This condition causes a state called cor pulmonate, in which a part of the heart expands and weakens.  Smith shows signs high-pressure recording to 150/85mm/hg higher than normal.  Question two One of the high priority nursing strategies to diagnose Jackson Smith is clinical history.  The content of detailed history taking for the disease includes the nature, period and causes of signs.  Age and circumstance of early beginning of indications, allergies and comorbidities, family history, occupation, long-term medication, and exacerbations are some of crucial info. Looking at the first clinical examination of a patient, the history is given that he had complications that had been diagnosed when he was two years old.  The second high priority nursing strategies are clinical examination.  Allergy analysis should continuously be done (clinical past, blood test).  Typically, patient with acute asthma have previously had a basic evaluation of their illness.   In the verification of the diagnosis; if adverse asthma is assumed, differential diagnoses that may simulator asthma should primarily be ruled out. This is because up to 40% of asthma patients smoke.  Sub-acute reversibility analysis using total treatment should be done in addition to critical reversibility testing to rule out the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  If the prednisone treatment completely or largely reinstates lung function, COPD is improbable. A chest x-ray may be expedient as it can rule numerous differentials detects such as malformation, tumours, pulmonary embolism, and dysplasia (George, Joshi, Concepcion & Lee, 2017, pp.40). Both the clinical history and examination was done to the patient.  His family was able to say that a patient has been diagnosed with asthma when he was two years old. Even though the above is not a comprehensive part of the clinical history, it does form part of the clinical history.  Clinical examination is done to the patient.  Some of the examinations include the checking of blood pressure, respiratory and pulse rate, oxygen saturation, blood gas test, and chest x-ray which shown hyperinflated lungs.  Also, the patient showed severe dyspnea, which is an inability to speak a sentence in one breath and finally auscultation of lungs identified diminished breath sounds and widespread wheeze. Question 3a The usual procedure of bronchoconstriction happens in reaction to straight parasympathetic stimulation. Antagonism of this outcome is created by free mixing epinephrine that performs upon B-receptors. B-blockers such as atenolol have been well recognized to induce spasms in asthmatic patients because they avert epinephrine from undertaking its business. B-Agonists such as salbutamol are utilised to excite the similar receptors that epinephrine uses (B2) to cause bronchodilation (Inayat, Shah, Rahu & Sahito, 2017, pp.  102). Ipratropium bromide antagonizes the activities of acetylcholine at the parasympathetic, postganglionic and effector-cell junction. When breathed in, it fixes competitively to cholinergic receptors in the bronchial smooth muscle and thus hindering the bronchoconstrictors action of the acetylcholine-mediated vagal impulses.  Thus, vagal tone reserve leads to dilation of the large central airways resulting in bronchodilation (Inayat, Shah, Rahu & Sahito, 2017, pp.  104).. Corticosteroids such as hydrocortisone reverse the mucosal edema, minimizing vascular permeability by vasoconstriction, and inhibiting the release of LTC 4 and LTD4. Question 3b Immediate management is required in case of acute severe asthma Oxygen to maintain SpO2 94-98% should be maintained.  Salbutamol 5mg through an oxygen-driven nebulizer, ipratropium bromide 0.5 mg through an oxygen-driven nebulizer, and hydrocortisone IV 100mg should be administered. However, no sedatives of any sort but chest radiograph only if pneumothorax or association are alleged (Kulkarni, Akwei, Luyt, Gaillard & Mulla, 2015, pp. 2473). If life-threatening sorts are existent, confer with senior health care providers. Add IV magnesium sulphate 1.-2g infusion over 20minutes and provide nebulized beta2 agonist more regularly such as salbutamol up to every 15-30mnutes or 10mg continuously hours. If the patient is improving, oxygen should be maintained between SpO2 94-98%.  Prednisolone oral 40-50 each day and nebulized Beta2 agonist and ipratropium 4- hours ought to be administered. If the patient is not progressing after 15-30 minutes, continuous steroids and oxygen administration should follow. Give nebulized beta2 agonist more frequently such as salbutamol up to every 15-30 minutes and continues ipratropium 0.5mg 4-6 hours until a patient improves.  Nursing:  repeat measurement of PEF 15-minutes after preliminary treatment and oximeter measurement ought to be maintained at SpO2 94-98%. One should repeat blood gas measurement after one-hour starting from initial treatment. Finally, chart PEF earlier and after providing Beta2 agonists and at least four times daily during the hospice stay. References Carr, T. F., Berdnikovs, S., Simon, H. U., Bochner, B. S., & Rosenwasser, L. J. (2016). Eosinophilic bioactivities in severe asthma. World Allergy Organization Journal, 9(1), 21. George, M., Joshi, S. V., Concepcion, E., & Lee, H. (2017). Paradoxical bronchospasm from benzalkonium chloride (BAC) preservative in albuterol nebulizer solution in a patient with acute severe asthma. A case report and literature review of airway effects of BAC. Respiratory medicine case reports, 21, 39-41. Inayat, N., Shah, R. H., Rahu, Q. A., & Sahito, R. (2017). Nebulized Salbutamol with and without Ipratropium Bromide in the treatment of acute Severe Asthma. Pakistan Journal of Chest Medicine, 22(3), 102-6. Kulkarni, H., Akwei, S., Luyt, D. K., Gaillard, E. A., & Mulla, H. (2015). Cardiac Troponin I Levels in Children with Acute Severe Asthma Treated with IV Salbutamol. Lung Dis Treat, 1(102), 2472-1018. Memon, B. N., Parkash, A., Khan, K. M. A., Gowa, M. A., & Bai, C. (2016). Response to nebulized salbutamol versus combination with ipratropium bromide in children with acute severe asthma. JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, 66(3), 243-246. Saint, G. L., Semple, M. G., Sinha, I., & Hawcutt, D. B. (2018). Optimizing the Dosing of Intravenous Theophylline in Acute Severe Asthma in Children. Pediatric Drugs, 20(3), 209-214.

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