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B90075 Applied Health Studies Question: Scenario You working a care setting and have noticed that carers often discuss challenges in communicating with dementia clients. After considerable thought and reflection, you have decided to research barriers to communication with such clients, and effective ways of overcoming them. You are very aware of ethical constraints in research and therefore will limit your primary research sources such as first-hand accounts from practitioners, carers and other experts in the area of practice. Primary sources might also include legal and historical documents, results of experiments and other market research data collection. You understand that secondary data will form the bulk of your research which includes textbooks, journal articles, newspapers and magazine articles (not factual accounts). Explain the role of research for evidence-based practice in health and social care This task comprises a reflective essay to be accompanied by a log of weekly learning as indicated in the log book template below as an appendix to Task 1.  The sections of the essay must include: A description the purpose and process of conducting research in enabling evidence-based practice in health and social care. An explanation the skills and qualities needed to conduct a literature review in health and social care. Using the Gibbs reflection model carry out an analysis of your own current skills and knowledge in being able to conduct a literature review ethically in health and social care towards evidence-based practice with a milestone plan (e.g Gantt Chart or Work Breakdown Structure) of key deliverables for tasks to be completed for the whole assignment Task 2: Literature Review Conduct a review of key literature relating to a research topic towards improvements in care practice This task requires the drafting of a PICo table to refine the research topic “Communication skills in practice: the influence of communication skills and techniques on outcomes for service users in a health or social care service” into a specific question to review of new ways of working, review of new ways of managing, or a review the introduction of new roles or services. This must be followed by a focussed, structured mini-literature review. The PICo table should be informed by a facilitated group interview with a discussion of how the output influenced your search strategy for the literature review. The literature review should define key terms, and examine a range of recentsources relating to the research topic The results of literature review should summarise current knowledge about research topic in table format followed by a discussion. This task should conclude with an evaluation the reliability and validity of literature review (M2) and a rationale for a research study. Answer: Task 1 Description and process of conducting research in enabling evidence based practice in health and social care. Evidence based health and social care practices are available to various conditions for example asthma, heart failure, and diabetes. These practices not all the time are implemented in the care delivery and variation in the practices abound (DiCenso, Guyatt & Ciliska, 2014). There is a given process to conduct research in evidenced based practice which is described as below.  There are five steps of evidence based practice and each of the steps would be discussed as following. Ask of the question. This is the first step in which entails converting the need for the information such as (prevention, therapy, causation) into an answerable question. This is done through formulation of a focused clinical question using PICO, which is useful to decide the type of the question it is(DiCenso, Guyatt and Ciliska, 2014).  Finding information or evidence to answer the question. This entails tracking down the best evidence which would answer the question. This is done through use of systematic research, through resources which contain pre appraised evidence. Critically appraise the evidence or the information(Young, Rohwer, Volmink and Clarke, 2014).  This ensures that the evidence is valid; it has impact and its applicability which is usefulness in the clinical practice. Integration of appraised evidence with own clinical expertise as well as preferences of the patients (Prasad and Ioannidis, 2014). This entails integrating of the critical appraisal with the clinical expertise and with the patient unique biology, values along with circumstances.  The research based evidence needs to be integrated with one’s own clinical experience and expertise and the preferences of the patient.  This entails evaluating ones effectiveness as well as efficiency in executing of the four steps above and seeking ways to which there are improvement which are made on them for next time. Explanation of skills and qualities needed to conduct literature review in health and social care. The following are the skills and the qualities needed to conduct literature review in the health and the social care. One of literature searching skills (Brownson et al 2017). This is an important skills since it enables one to explore search and retrieve papers which are related to a given research topic. Additionally, this skill is crucial since one could retrieve evidence in evaluating the clinical literature. An individual will also need to be determination and technical competency qualities (Prasad and Ioannidis, 2014). This would assist one to acquire knowledge of research, so that it would enable them to critique research papers literature and be in a position to identify the research gap within the literature. Another skill which one should posses is critical appraisal skills. This ensures one to find out if the research in the paper is good, or the results which have been presented in the literature review are relevant to ones practice. Reflection model carry out an analysis of your own current skills and knowledge Description I carried out a literature review in an ethical manner in evidence based practice in health care. In conducting this review I would identify my current skills and knowledge. Some of my current skills are; literature searching, in which I would be able to explore and retrieve research based on the research topic (Prasad and Ioannidis, 2014). I have a knowledge of research and this would enable me critique numerous papers which would be used for the evidence based practice. Other skills are critical appraisal which would enable me to find out if the research in the papers and the result are relevant to the evidence based practice. Feelings In conducting literature review ethically on evidence based practice I was happy since I wanted to ensure that all the steps for carrying this review are followed. In carrying out literature review in the evidence based practice it is important to ensure the entire requirements are met. In one instance, there were colleague who intended we do a research without carrying the steps required for the evidence based study. I was intimidated since I felt that he was more experienced and he should have ensured that all are met. I suggested that it was important we spoke together about the issue. We later agreed it was important to follow ethical practices to ensure we have a good research. Evaluation Carrying out literature review can be an extremely challenging for me.  When the incidence happened with my colleague I regret I did not act to the challenge of ensuring ethical practices are observed. Nonetheless, I am pleased since I have skills and knowledge to ensure that I carry evidence based practices in literature review which is more ethical.  I have learned from the incident, and it has taught me the significance of acting assertively with the colleagues, in sensitive manner. Analysis Literature review is the exploration to the issues which are related to the evidence based practice in the health and social care (Prasad and Ioannidis, 2014). Given the contribution which the research can make to improved client care, it is important to have awareness as well as understanding of the evidence based practice to be enhanced. Conclusion Looking back at conducting literature review, I can see it is important to improve on the knowledge and the skills in order to succeed better in the future research. Carrying literature review in an ethical manner in the health and the social care towards to the evidence based practice, it is important to ensure all the aspect within the research is followed (Harvey and Kitson, 2015). It is important to put aside the challenges from the colleagues and focus on the skills and the relevant knowledge related to the study. Action Plan In the future, I will aim to develop my assertive skills when carrying out literature review, to ensure that relevant materials is used in evidence based practice research. In my next literature review, I will make this a goal for my learning and discuss with colleagues out strategies I could use to attain this. Additionally, I will formulate Gantt and work breakdown structure for the deliverables in the literature review.   Task 2 Literature Review Conduct a review of key literature relating to a research topic towards improvements in care practice Developing of the researchable question could be a challenging task to the researcher when initiating a project (Prasad and Ioannidis, 2014). Both the unanswered issues to the current clinical practices and when experiences dictate alternative therapies which could provoke the investigators in formulation of the clinical research question. PICO Table In this research question it is about “influence of communication skills and techniques on outcomes for service users in a health or social care service”. The PICO table is as follows; Framework item: Think about: Example: Patient problem or the population. The problem is the influence of the communication skills as well as techniques to the patients in the health services. Self manage a chronic medical condition, and the adoptive preventive health behavior. Intervention Offering of the opportunity to the patient to tell on their story. Patient satisfaction increased particularly when the members of the healthcare team take the issue seriously, and try to understand the patient experience, and provide viable options. Continuing care from the same healthcare providers. Comparison or control Improvement of the patient satisfaction when they are encouraged to express their ideas, concerns along with the expectations Offering satisfaction of the social and mental functioning. Outcome In case the patient interviews are conducted by clinicians in their career. If this is viewed as procedure, the patient interview could be the most commonly utilized procedure which they utilize. There has been less attention given by communication training clinicians and healthcare professionals. Deliver of the patient centered care. Literature Review Communication is the, most natural involuntary action to all, thus the significance of its effectiveness might be easily overlooked (Prasad and Ioannidis, 2014). It is an integral part to the health service providers, since it is a medium through which they relate with the patient, thus, an ineffective communication skills could have positive effect on the quality of the health and social services (Guise et al 2014). The key terms in the review are effective communication, therapeutic communication, patient centered care, and maintaining boundary (White, Dudley et al 2016). The research evidence indicates there has been strong relationship between healthcare team members communication skills and techniques and the capacity of the patients to follow via with the medical recommendations, self manage a chronic medical conditions, as well as adapt to a preventive health behaviors (Swinkels et al 2002). According to studies conducted during the past 3 decades highlights clinician’s ability to explain, listen as well as emphasize could have some profound impacts to the biological as well as functional health outcomes and patient satisfaction and experience of care (Snibsøer et al 2018). The patients’ perceptions to quality healthcare services are highly dependent to the quality of their interactions with their healthcare clinicians as well as team. There has been wealth of research data which support on the benefits of an effective communication and health outcomes for the patients along with the healthcare teams (White, Dudley-Brown and Terhaar, 2016). The connection which the patients usually feel with their clinicians could improve their health mediated via participation in their care, adhering to their treatment and patient self management practices (Prasad and Ioannidis, 2014).  According to the institute of Medicine Report on the Health Professions and Training, they identified that doctors along with the other health professionals they lack adequate training when it comes to offering high quality to the healthcare to the patients. References Brownson, R. C., Baker, E. A., Deshpande, A. D., and Gillespie, K. N., 2017. Evidence-based public health. Oxford university press. DiCenso, A., Guyatt, G., & Ciliska, D., 2014. Evidence-Based Nursing-E-Book: A Guide to Clinical Practice. Elsevier Health Sciences. Harvey, G., & Kitson, A., 2015. Implementing evidence-based practice in healthcare: a facilitation guide. Routledge. Guise, J.M., Chang, C., Viswanathan, M., Glick, S., Treadwell, J., Umscheid, C.A., Whitlock, E., Fu, R., Berliner, E., Paynter, R. and Anderson, J., 2014. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Evidence-based Practice Center methods for systematically reviewing complex multicomponent health care interventions. Journal of clinical epidemiology, 67(11), pp.1181-1191. Karlin, B.E. and Cross, G., 2014. From the laboratory to the therapy room: National dissemination and implementation of evidence-based psychotherapies in the US Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care System. American Psychologist, 69(1), p.19. Prasad, V., & Ioannidis, J. P., 2014. Evidence-based de-implementation for contradicted, unproven, and aspiring healthcare practices. Snibsøer, A. K., Ciliska, D., Yost, J., Graverholt, B., Nortvedt, M. W., Riise, T., and Espehaug, B., 2018. Self-reported and objectively assessed knowledge of evidence-based practice terminology among healthcare students: A cross-sectional study. PloS one, 13(7), e0200313. Swinkels, A., Albarran, J.W., Means, R.I., Mitchell, T. and Stewart, M.C., 2002. Evidence-based practice in health and social care: where are we now?. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 16(4), pp.335-347. White, K. M., Dudley-Brown, S., & Terhaar, M. F. (Eds.)., 2016. Translation of evidence into nursing and health care. Springer Publishing Company. Young, T., Rohwer, A., Volmink, J. and Clarke, M., 2014. What are the effects of teaching evidence-based health care (EBHC)? Overview of systematic reviews. PloS one, 9(1), p.e86706.

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