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B991 Health And Social Care Question: 1: Discuss the function of research in a chosen area of interest. My chosen area is Type 1 diabetes  Extending knowledge and understanding Aiding reflection 2: Justify the research methodologies chosen for the project. 3: Assess strengths and weaknesses of the research project in meeting the aims or hypothesis. 4: Assess findings of the research project in relation to the – original hypothesis. 5: Assess research methodologies with regard to ensuring validity of findings. 6: Evaluate how the research project could have been improved. Task You must write an essay about Type 1 diabetes, which clearly addresses each of the assessment criteria in relation to the research that you have already undertaken. The essay can be structured under the following headings: Introduction What is the function of research in my chosen area? What is my justification of the research methodologies that I chose for my research? What were the strengths and weakness of my research project and did I meet my initial aims? What were the key findings of the research project? How have I addressed validity in my research project? How can my research project be improved?  Answer: Project Title: Determinants Of Type -1 Diabetes, Treatment And Current Status Introduction: Diabetes is one of the main reasons of deaths and poses a threat universally to everyone as it is a chronic disease which needs interventions throughout life. According to statistics, 387 million people are having diabetes globally, out of that 5-10% comprises of type-1diabetes (You and Henneberg, 2016). Type-1diabetes (T1D) is diabetes mellitus condition in which pancreatic β-cells fails to produce insulin; it is an autoimmune disorder (Chiang, et al., 2013). In this disorder, there is constant increase in the level of glucose which results due to complete insulin deficiency during endogenous production. The symptoms which are related to the beginning of T1D are polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia, (these 3 occur together) along with hyperglycaemia (Atkinson, et al., 2012).  Its occurrence is most commonly seen in children, therefore, it is known as ‘juvenile’ diabetes. Its prevalence and incidence worldwide, differs among male and female as well as on geographical regions. The frequency of T1D is observed at higher rate in male than in females (Atkinson, et al., 2014). Australia is ranked as 7th highest in number, universally, in terms of occurrence of T1D (Hill, et al., 2015). Since a decade, the knowledge of the history of T1D and its pathological process has been revealed by the scientific world, especially in context to epidemiology and disease expectation. Improvements in technical area to constantly monitor glucose and availability of insulin pumps have aided patients suffering from T1D to deal with the management of disease throughout their lives. Regardless of the advancements in technology, intellect, and monetary funds, yet, there are no current methods to cure T1D. Administration of diabetes remains non-uniform worldwide (Atkinson, 2014). Therefore, the project was undertaken with the objectives kept in mind To examine the differences in treatment, outcomes, and processes of healthcare in T1D patients. To outline the current status of T1D, emphasizing on its prevalence, and future interventions. Methodologies: For this project, analysis has been carried out from internet sources using Google scholar. Peer-reviewed journal papers which are available online and health ministry reports of various countries across the globe have been evaluated to study their status on T1D. Data has been collected from the online sources not old than five years.    Justification Of The Research Methodologies: The method used while drafting the project is the fastest, simplest and easy to access via information technology. It can be accomplished from any part of the world by using communication technology and findings can be compiled. Limitations to the methodology are only the reports which were accessible have been mentioned while drafting the project.  Other e-journals or literature have been omitted because they are not accessible. Strengths And Weakness: The strength of the project is it covers all the latest findings and reports on T1D. Thus, the outcomes will be applicable worldwide enhancing up-to-date knowledge on the chronic disease. Most of the data reported for the project are from authentic latest sources searched on google and have high citations and impact factors. The weakness of the report is it does not include survey or questionnaires of T1D patients which would have directly emphasized on their experiences throughout the journey of this chronic disease. On-going clinical trials or unpublished data are missing in the report.  Due to non-accessibility of the journal or reports online, the data is missing.    The key findings of the project are increase in occurrence of T1D universally is backed by decline in natural selection which is one of the elementary mechanisms of evolution. The reason behind the increased prevalence of T1D can be investigated by analysis of epidemiology universally among people. In contrast to this, it was observed that occurrence of T1D may be due to augmented longevity instead of natural selection, as progress in clinical care and overall health resulted in better endurance of T1D patients (You and Henneberg, 2016). The chances of success in reproduction might regulate the level of grouping together of T1D genes per population; this affects the rate of occurrence of T1D patients in their subsequent generations. The existing theory also assumed that one of the reasons behind enhanced prevalence of T1D is environmental factors which can activate genetic constitution, though; these environmental factors are specific (Patterson, et al., 2014). The only possibility to cure T1D patients which seems significant to scientists is either by modifying autoimmune process or by replacing the functional loss of beta cells. The main challenges faced by the researchers are lack of availability of beta cells (new sources required), its functioning and longevity for replacement therapy. For transplantation of beta cells in pancreas, plans are yet to be developed to restore and preserve adequate number of dynamic and efficient (in terms of functioning) beta cells (JDRF, 2015). Another important finding is occurrence of T1D is high in developed countries than in developing countries (You and Henneberg, 2016). This is may be assigned due to the easy accessibility of insulin as well as reduced natural selection in developed countries. Despite of all advancements in medical technology, insulin which is life-saving for T1D patients is however, less affordable throughout the world. Affordability of insulin could minimize the fiscal burden of the T1D patients. In contemporary medicine technology, interventions via gene at the present stage is not successful to eliminate T1D genes as well as fail to direct towards genetic stock improvement due to ethical issues (JDRF, 2015). Hence, the elucidation to minimize T1D genetic burden among different populations is to analyse T1D epidemiology. It is vital to carry out the explanation and it must depend on its occurrence and collective information of all age groups. It might also provide a new method to deal with the chronic disease worldwide. Validity Of The Research Project The deliverables of the project will provide accurate outcomes to the T1D patients and their families as well as the medical world. Authentic and peer-reviewed journal sources have been used to frame the project. Subsequently, the findings of the project are supported with evidences. The project findings have met the targeted objectives and explicitly explained the aims of the project, hence validating it. Steps To Improve The Project By including personal experiences of the T1D patients in the project might aid to improve it. A valid and authentic set of survey of the patients might add on to resolve the issues because only the patients can reveal how and what they go through during phases of this chronic disease. The care provider of patients and family members do experience physical and mental stress, so they too need to be taught skills to cope up with the condition (Kalra and Kalra, 2017). If clinical trials and results are added in the project, then it will be beneficial for the patients to learn the ongoing advancements and treatment opportunities which will be available for them in future. As the onset of this disease is early, patients have to continue treatment and control throughout their lives. Till date, no cure is available for this chronic disease (JDRF, 2015) and people are surviving on multiple insulin injections or pumps on regular basis. It is universal that diabetes comes with a plethora of other diseases as it affects other organs of the body such as eyes, kidney, and foot and so on. New method to care for the patients with T1D is required because the particular needs of the patients are not met by the health care professionals. (Kar and Choudhary, 2016). Self-management care is of utmost importance for the T1D patients as they need to survive with diabetes 24*7 for 365 days, thus they must learn the technique (Harwood, et al., 2013; Hill, et al., 2015; Akhter et al., 2016). Thus, the need of the current situation is to integrate programs to promote T1D and create awareness among population. As it was reported that T1D is not diagnosed at appropriate time among children or it is frequently missed (Kratzer, 2012). Thus, early interventions are required along with diagnosis to cope up with this chronic disease. The outcomes must be highlighted to promote awareness which will guide patients and their families to improve care and control of T1D. Conclusion: The incidence of T1D is at the early childhood; consequently, schools must be involved actively to take some accountability to guide children with diabetes, and their parents regarding the administration of disease. Patients also require support socially which aids to strengthen their present mental condition. Patients and families face various problems while enduring with T1D condition, emphasis has to be given on how to enhance the method of care delivery to such patients. Hence, accurate information of the disease and care for T1D patients has to be promoted through campaigns or health education. A large number of multidisciplinary scientists are working on different areas to find out a solution for the disease. They are trying to regulate the factors which directly influence the destruction of pancreatic cells and eventually result into failure of insulin production. The latest research for intervention of T1D such as replacement of β-cells is an innovative approach reported in UK, which poses some hope for the patients to look forward to the medical advances in the coming years.   Bibliography: Akhter, K., Turnbull, T., & Simmons, D. (2016). ‘Influences of social issues on type 1 diabetes self-management: are we doing enough?’, Practical Diabetes, 33(9), pp. 307-312. Atkinson, M. A. (2012). ‘The Pathogenesis and natural history of type 1 diabetes’, Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine, 2(11), pp. a007641. Atkinson, M. A., Eisenbarth, G. S. & Michels, A. W. (2014). ‘Type 1 diabetes’, Lancet, 383(9911), pp. 69-82. Chiang, J. L., Kirkman, M. S., Laffel, L. M. & Peters, A. L. (2014). ‘Type 1 diabetes through the life span: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association’, Diabetes Care, 37, pp. 2034-54. Harwood, E., Bunn, C., Caton, S. & Simmons, D. (2013). ‘Addressing barriers to diabetes care and self-care in general practice: A new framework for practice nurses’. Journal of Diabetes Nursing, 17, pp.186-91. Hill, K. E., Gleadle, J. M., Pulvirenti, M. & McNaughton, D. A. (2015). ‘The social determinants of health for people with type 1 diabetes that progress to end-stage renal disease’, Health Expectations, 18(6), pp. 2513-2521. Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (2015). ‘Type 1 Diabetes Research Roadmap’, Retrieved from: Kalra, S. & Kalra, B. (2017). ‘Mishti copes with diabetes: A pragmatic approach to coping skills training’, Journal of Social Health and Diabetes, 5(1), pp. 1-2. Kar, P. & Choudhary, P. (2016). ‘Type 1 diabetes care: Back to basics?,’ Diabetes Care for Children & Young People, 5, pp. 55–60 Kratzer, J. (2012). ‘Structural barriers to coping with type 1 diabetes mellitus in Ghana: experiences of diabetic youth and their families’, Ghana Medical Journal, 46(2), pp. 39-45. Patterson, C., Guariguata, L. & Dahlquist, G. (2014). ‘Diabetes in the young- a global view and worldwide estimates of numbers of children with type 1 diabetes’, Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 103, pp. 161-175. You, W. P. & Henneberg, M. (2016). ‘Type 1 diabetes prevalance increasing globally and regionally: the role of natural selection and life expectancy at birth’, BMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care, 4, pp. e000161.

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