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BAA752 Foundations Of Integrated Care

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BAA752 Foundations Of Integrated Care Question: This assessment requires you to undertake the initial steps associated with developing a research questions. Make sure you read the information listed below so that you know exactly what this assessment entails. Not reading the instructions is one of the main reasons why students lose marks. 1. For this assessment you will need to pretend that you are a researcher who is planning to conduct a research project. Now select a “broad” area of interest. After you have done this you are ready to address the following: Perform a mini-review of the relevant literature associated with the broad area of interest using online databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed etc. Read the information, making sure to jot down notes as you go, so that you gain some understanding of the themes running through the broad area of interest. Next provide a response (using complete sentences) to the following questions: What is your “broad” area of interest? What is the context for your project? What do you hope to achieve by doing the project? What is the nature of your question? Are there any potential relationships you want to explore? Then (using single words) starting with the nature of the question, that is, who, what, where, how, when, begin to piece together the answers generated in the previous step until you are happy with the final research question: For example, say your problem was a large percentage of non-recyclable materials in household recycle bins. Your answers from the previous step might lead to the following questions: Topic: recycling; Context: domestic/community; Goal: to explore why there is a lack of efficiency; Nature of your question: who and why; Relationship: correlation between demographic characteristics and inefficient recycling: Question: Is there a relationship between household recycling behaviours and demographic characteristics? Answer: Introduction: With such questions as what has caused the rise of household waste production? What are has led to lack of efficiency in recycling behavior? How can we reach to a solution? Among others this paper looks at the relationship between recycling behavior and demographic characteristics. Globally, the waste management field beliefs that there is an existence in the relationship between recycling performance, household waste and the demographic characteristic of the community or household producing waste. Household solid waste is waste produced by normal household activities.  Research has been conducted for the purpose of increasing waste recycling and the factors that influence waste recycling behavior. My study therefore focuses on the relationship between household recycling behaviors and demographic characteristics. As a result this paper seeks to provide a detailed breakdown on the inadequacy in efficiency in recycling behavior among households. Participants therefore are to provide their attitude towards environment and recycling, their demographics, knowledge on recycling techniques together with the practices that they are involved in. Drawing from diverse studies, it is clear that some factors that affect inefficient in recycling of waste were attitude, past behavior, demographics, information situational variables and identity. There is a huge difference between what individuals recycle and what they want to recycle.  About 80 percent of what the world disposes is recyclable and the recycling rate is 28 percent (David, 2006). There are evidence in the correlation between attitudes and recycling behavior, and also a correlation between knowledge and recycling behavior. Recycling behavior majorly constituent of solid waste recycling system, recycling policy, solid waste bank approach and community based management. Environmental knowledge and attitude has drawn a lot of interest in gaining clear understanding of recycling behavior and how it to encourage separation of waste and recycle at waste generating sources.  Environment affect the demographic characteristics in one way or another in recycling behavior. Female participate in environment learning compared to men. Being the most factor that has influenced community recycling, knowledge has been recognized as a factor influencing environment and waste management. As such, this has drawn attention from environment stakeholders and policy makers in addressing the issue of waste production. Trying to address the problem formulating of different strategies and policies have taken place at local, national and international levels,  However, most recyclers acquire their knowledge or information from newspapers and televisions. Public education and information is enhanced through public campaigns which give a positive correlation with recycling rate (Nixon and Saphores, 2009). Domestically, most of the individuals do not take part in public education in recycling thus providing a negative correlation with recycling behavior. In spite of the education most do not practically use the information.  In addition, the relating between recycling behavior and environmental attitude are explained by such theories as theory of Planned Behavior and the theory of Reason Action (Montano, & Kasprzyk, 2015). The hypothesis in the theory of Planned Behavior is that through the intervention of behavioral intention, attitudes always have an impact on individual’s behaviors. The behavior mediating intention is determined by attitudes towards perceived behavior control, subjective norms and a result individuals or households get motivated to recycle resulting to behavior regulation from manipulating of rewards or punishments. Lack of inner zeal to practice domestic waste management increase the environmental action and conservation concluding that manipulation through punishment and rewards only work under supervision which is also a negative correlation between demographic characteristics and recycling behavior.  Moreover psychological variables coercing social norms and peer pressure can be used in predicting recycling behavior. According to Nixon 2009, the theory of Reason Action assumes that situational factors, demographics and psychological factors are likely to carry some degree of responsibility in recycling behavior.  The gap between environment values and environment action depend on both communities’ attitude and demographic factors. Inefficiency gap is as a result of lack of initiatives in taking responsibilities, practicability and individualism. Individual barriers include lack of interest in environmental concern, individuals also assumes that it’s the role if institutions to take care of the environment and lack of time and storage space for this materials hinders actions from being taken. Demographic factors have also highly affected the rate at which waste materials are recycled (Shen, & Saijo, 2008). Higher income households are more likely to embrace recycling, unlike low-income rates households. Females are also mire like t recycle than their counter part. Additional, the level of education and knowledge is positively correlated to recycling behavior. Age is as well a demographic characteristic. Children and the aged have a low rate in participating in household waste management unlike the youths and the middle-aged family or community members. Those with low levels of education are more likely to poorly dispose their waste or use more of the non-recyclable materials. Behavior and lifestyle changes show are the highest challenge in recycling behavior and are therefore the solutions to the current issues of waste production. 80 percent of households hold non-recyclable materials in their recycling bins (Huffman, Van Der, Henning, & Watrous-Rodriguez, 2014).  Inability to apply technology in waste production, lack of interest or concern to the environment attitude and space is associated with the increase in waste. With increment in environment and academic practitioners in conserving environment through recycling behavior, the number of household waste has enormously been on the increase. More emphasis is given to the general environment under looking the households which gives a high percentage of waste production both the recyclable and non-recyclable. Among other factors, demographics holds the highest percent of factors affecting household recycling behavior. Therefore, the target of this paper is to investigate the relationship between demographic characteristics and recycling behavior in households. It aims in exploring the gap in efficiency in domestic recycling behaviors. As a result the paper tries to provide answers to the following research questions: What is the extent of study on domestic waste recycling behavior? What are the domestic characteristics affecting recycling behaviors? How are domestic characteristics related to the insufficient recycling? What are the solutions to the existing domestic waste recycling behavior? In conclusion, domestic recycling behavior has drastically increased causing a lot of environmental challenges. It plays a major role in waste management and should therefore not be under looked at the expense of the general environment. The community academic institutions and the government should work together in implementing solutions to this challenge. References Chow, W. S. (2010). Environment Planning and Management. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, 21(3). David, G. E. E. (2006). EUROPEAN ENVIRONMENT AGENCY. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114, 152-160. Gencer, Y. G. (2015). Mystery of recycling: Glass and aluminum examples. Handbook of research on waste management techniques for sustainability, 172-191. Huffman, A. H., Van Der Werff, B. R., Henning, J. B., & Watrous-Rodriguez, K. (2014). When do recycling attitudes predict recycling? An investigation of self-reported versus observed behavior. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 38, 262-270. Montano, D. E., & Kasprzyk, D. (2015). Theory of reasoned action, theory of planned behavior, and the integrated behavioral model. Health behavior: Theory, research and practice Nixon, H., & Saphores, J. D. M. (2009). Information and the decision to recycle: results from a survey of US households. Journal of environmental planning and management, 52(2), 257-277. Saphores, J. D. M., Ogunseitan, O. A., & Shapiro, A. A. (2012). Willingness to engage in a pro-environmental behavior: An analysis of e-waste recycling based on a national survey of US households. Resources, conservation and recycling, 60, 49-63. Shen, J., & Saijo, T. (2008). Reexamining the relations between socio-demographic characteristics and individual environmental concern: Evidence from Shanghai data. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 28(1), 42-50.

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