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CHC43215 Alcohol And Other Drugs

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CHC43215 Alcohol And Other Drugs Question  The essay should demonstrate that students have begun to develop skills in critical analysis and providing evidence to support their arguments. Analyse and evaluate two counselling theories and their potential application when working with clients who have marijuana addiction and anxiety, Choose from these frameworks only: • CBT or DBT • Group therapy • Family Therapy • Relapse Prevention Answer  Psychotherapies can be described as the term that are often applied for the variety of treatment techniques aiming to help the persons in indentifying and changing troubling emotions as well as thoughts and behaviors (Volkow et al., 2016). The psychotherapies are seen to take place with licensed as well as trained mental health care professionals and the clients meeting for one or with other patients or family members in the group settings. This assignment would be putting focus on two major therapies like cognitive behavioral therapies as well as family therapies. Their intervention procedures on marijuana disorder and anxiety issues in clients will be discussed. Cognitive behavioral therapy can be defined as the short-term, goal-oriented psychotherapy treatment that mainly follows a hands-on, practical approach towards problem solving. The main aim of this therapy is to bring changes in the different patterns of the thinking or the behaviors that are behind the difficulties of the problems faced by the individuals. This helps to change the ways that the patients feel. Researchers have conducted various studies and have found that CBT successfully help in treating a wide range of issues in the life of individuals (Fortuna et al., 2018). This may range from sleeping difficulties or relationship programs to that of drug as well as alcohol abuse and even anxiety and depressions. This approach is mainly seen to work by modifying the attitudes of the people as well as their behaviors. This is done by focusing on the thoughts as well as the images, beliefs and attitudes that are harbored by the individuals. Studies opine that the therapists mainly want to investigate how these procedures relate to the ways a person behaves and to the way of dealing of different emotional problems.   Marijuana use disorder can be defined as the continuous use of cannabis in spite of clinically significant distress as well as impairment experienced by the individuals. This is mainly seen to include symptoms including a strong desire of the individuals to take cannabis as well as also facing difficulties in controlling the uses. They are seen to be persisting in the use of the drug despite different harmful consequences. They are seen to ensure a higher priority to cannabis use than many other activities and obligations. They are also seen to experience increased tolerance to the different outcomes of the drug. This disorder is associate with negative outcomes on the quality of lives of the individuals (Velthorst et al., 2015). It is seen to cause significant impairment in the academic as well as occupational functioning. The individuals are also seen to develop suspiciousness as well as social withdrawal. Such individuals are also seen to produce intoxicated behavior as well as impaired driving. They are also seen to develop impulsivity as well as take up different risk taking activities and show irresponsibility. It also causes various types of cognitive impairment. It leads to impairment in the motor coordination. It also causes sensation of slowed time as well as impaired judgment (Palmier et al., 2017). It is also seen to cause decreased short-term memory as well as impaired leaning as well as apathy. It also causes psychosis as well as delirium. It also causes emotional distress like anxiety as well as panic. One of the positive outcomes that cognitive behavioral therapy brings to the treatment of marijuana addiction is its emphasis on the long-term maintenance. The drug users of marijuana are often seen to be subjected into relapse episodes. Therefore, therapists need to teach patients a new set of attitudes as well as skills on which the clients can rely on the long run. These attitudes and skills can not only help in the improvement of the sense of self-efficacy in the patients but can also lead to reduction of different life stressors (Lee, 2015). This might otherwise cause increase in the risk of the relapse. The therapists performing the CBT can help the clients to learn the various ways of delaying and distracting in responding to the cravings. This is mainly done by  helping the individuals in getting engaged in different constructive activities like that of writing or journaling, communicating with the supportive people, going for different meetings as well as other positive means by which the individuals can successfully ride out of the wave of craving until it dies away. The therapists would be also helping the client in identifying different dysfunctional ways of thinking and accordingly modifying them through motivational communication techniques (Blankers et al., 2016). The therapists help the patients to develop a repertoire of appropriately assertive comments so that the client can effectively turn down offers of smoking cannabis from peers or some other people. The therapists also help the clients in learning how to solve different problems effectively and directly rather than trying to drown out different problems by getting impaired as this only serves in worsening the issues. The professionals are also seen to help the patients to practice the different behaviors as well as the attitudes of self-respect that include counteracting beliefs. This would prevent the individuals from undermining oneself and can prevent them from suffering from hopelessness and helplessness that are often experienced by the people who want to withdraw the addiction. The therapists are also seen to help the patient by providing different referrals of healthy social support. They encourage the individuals in meeting with friends, family, relatives and others who support sobriety and thereby staying away from those people who would undermine different therapeutic goals (James et al., 2015). The professionals are also seen to make different lifestyle changes that would support sobriety as well as self-efficacy. This would include different healthy lifestyles for the patients helping them to adopt ways to refrain themselves from cursing as well as raging. They are also helped in engaging in different meaningful hobbies as well as doing things that promote spirituality and serenity. Researchers are of the opinion that cognitive behavioral therapies help patients in overcoming various drug addictions like marijuana in three effective manners. Firstly, it helps in dismissing false beliefs and insecurities that lead to substance abuse like that of marijuana. Secondly, it also helps in providing self-help tools that help in making the moods of the patients better. Third, it also helps in teaching the patients with effective communication skills. Triggers play one of the most important roles that make individuals get back into the cravings of the smoking up marijuana repeatedly. This makes them addicted and keeps them away from behaving sober (Carr, 2014). Therefore, cognitive behavioral therapies help in recovering patients by making them successfully deal with triggers in three different ways. The first skill that is to be developed is effective recognition of the different circumstances that lead to using of the drug of cannabis. The second skill that needs to be developed is effective avoiding. This would include removing yourself from different triggering situations whenever possible as well as appropriate. The third skill is the effective coping. The therapist would use the CBT techniques for effective addressing as well as alleviating of different emotions as well as thoughts that leads to marijuana use (Patterson et al., 2018) . Family therapy can be defined as the form of psychotherapy that helps in the reduction of the distress as well as the conflicts by the improvement of the systems of interactions between family members. Family therapists usually try to seek to have all the family members in the room but it might not always become possible. The main distinguishing features between family therapy and the individual counseling therapies are the perspectives as well as the framework and do not really depend on how many people are present in the therapy sessions. Researchers are of the opinion that this type of counseling mainly helps in viewing problems as residing in the person (Gurman et al., 2014). Therefore, family therapy is often termed as strength based treatments. Positive outcomes of the family therapies mainly include development and maintenance of healthy boundaries and helps in fostering cohesion as well as communication among the family members. It also helps in promoting problem solving through understanding of the family patterns as well as dynamics. It also helps in building empathy as well as understanding and helps in reduction of the family conflict (Carr, 2014). Anxiety disorders are seen to run in families. Researchers have noticed that parents with anxiety are more likely to have children who are also suffering from anxiety. Therefore, it is often found that family therapy can help in limiting the prevalence of anxiety in the children of the parents who suffer from anxiety as well. Studies have suggested that with the help of family therapies, it becomes possible for limiting the children’s susceptibility towards anxiety through the therapy as well as adjustment in the parenting styles (Gurman et al., 2014). It is also seen that in case of childhood anxiety disorders, untreated symptoms can linger as well and thereby grow into anxiety that is more formidable in the adulthood. If the symptoms are not treated well, they might get worsen and these might interfere with the development of friendships and relationships within schools as well as in the career success. Moreover, unchecked anxieties have been found to be linked with substance abuse as well as mental disorders. Family therapies can be taken as one of the options for providing a safe dialogue about the anxiety of the client and how it relates to the siblings as well as the parents. Researchers are also of the opinion that anxiety of the affected member might be caused by the overall family stress factors that needed to be addressed (Carr, 2014). Therefore, family therapy mainly remains focused on the effective identification and modification of the family interactions as well as the dynamics that help in serving to reinforce or worsen the anxiety symptoms of the individuals. Researchers are of the opinion that when family undergoes the therapy together in anxiety treatment, recovery is seen to become a family effort rather than solely the individual’s burden to bear. Here, the family members are made to learn constructive as well as helpful ways for interacting with the individual who is suffering from anxiety. This should ensure that they do not reinforce negative behaviors or worsen any symptoms. Cognitive behavioral therapy is also used extensively for treatment of anxieties in different individuals.  This talk-therapy mainly helps the individuals suffering from anxiety as well as the therapists to engage in conversations that are meant for identification as well as replacement of the negative and unrealistic thinking patterns as well as behaviors. This form of therapy sets itself apart from other types of talk therapies that anxiety mainly by focusing on the learning as well as application of the cognitive as well as behavioral therapies for management of anxiety (Lucasson et al., 2015). Researchers are of the opinion that unlike other talk therapy that puts more focus on providing support, CBT is more problem focused and goal-oriented. It is mainly aimed at teaching concrete skills that the individuals with anxiety can apply in their daily lives. Over the course of the therapy, the individuals learn skills as well as strategies and techniques for relaxation and for recognizing and reducing their own anxiety (Selles et al., 2015). Family therapy studies have shown that treatment approaches that are seen to involve the family usually have better engagement as well as higher rates of success and even increased after care participation. Huge number of benefits remains intricately associated with application of family therapies in marijuana addicted patient treatment as well. Firstly, the interventions applied by the family therapist assist the marijuana user to develop awareness of their needs and behaviors (Ebert et al., 2015). Secondly, it also helps in the improvement of the mental and physical state of the entire family units. Third, it also helps in the improvement of the communication styles as well as the relationship quality among the family members. Fourth, it helps the families in understanding and thereby avoiding enabling behaviors. Fifth, it also helps families in understanding as well as avoiding enabling behaviors. Sixth, it also helps in addressing co-dependent behaviors that might be acting as barriers and causing prevention of the recovery (Hanna, 2018). Seventh, it also helps the family members in learning as well as understanding the systems that remain in place for supporting and deterring marijuana abuse. Eight, it also helps in prevention of marijuana use from spreading throughout the families or down through the different generations. From the above discussion, it becomes clear that patients might suffer from marijuana use as well as anxiety disorders that might affect the quality of their lives. Therefore, cognitive behavioral therapy is one of the most famous evidence based therapies that can help people to identify the triggering patterns and hence teach them to control their actions and thinking procedures. These would help them to overcome various symptoms of marijuana use and anxiety disorders successfully. Many therapists also adopt family based therapies. They involve the family members and accordingly help them to identify the steps that would help them to support the individuals with the disorder and act as the best support system to the client. These psychotherapies would be helping the clients to overcome their disorders successfully and come back to the normal course of life that were impacted by the disorders. References: Blankers, M., Salemink, E., & Wiers, R. W. (2016). Cognitive behavioural therapy and cognitive bias modification in internet-based interventions for mood, anxiety and substance use disorders. In e-Mental Health (pp. 193-215). Springer, Cham. Carr, A. (2014). The evidence base for couple therapy, family therapy and systemic interventions for adult?focused problems. Journal of Family Therapy, 36(2), 158-194. Carr, A. (2014). The evidence base for family therapy and systemic interventions for child?focused problems. Journal of family therapy, 36(2), 107-157. Clarke, C., Hill, V., & Charman, T. (2017). School based cognitive behavioural therapy targeting anxiety in children with autistic spectrum disorder: a quasi-experimental randomised controlled trail incorporating a mixed methods approach. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 47(12), 3883-3895. Ebert, D. D., Zarski, A. C., Christensen, H., Stikkelbroek, Y., Cuijpers, P., Berking, M., & Riper, H. (2015). Internet and computer-based cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety and depression in youth: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled outcome trials. PloS one, 10(3), e0119895. Fortuna, L. R., Porche, M. V., & Padilla, A. (2018). A treatment development study of a cognitive and mindfulness?based therapy for adolescents with co?occurring post?traumatic stress and substance use disorder. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 91(1), 42-62. Gurman, A. S., & Kniskern, D. P. (2014). Handbook of family therapy. Routledge. Hanna, S. M. (2018). The practice of family therapy: Key elements across models. Routledge. James, A. C., James, G., Cowdrey, F. A., Soler, A., & Choke, A. (2015). Cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (2). Lee, N. K. (2015). Cognitive behavioural therapies for substance use problems. Textbook of Addiction Treatment: International Perspectives, 793-809. Lucassen, M. F., Stasiak, K., Crengle, S., Weisz, J. R., Frampton, C. M., Bearman, S. K., … & Kingi, D. (2015). Modular Approach to Therapy for Anxiety, Depression, Trauma, or Conduct Problems in outpatient child and adolescent mental health services in New Zealand: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 16(1), 457. Palmier-Claus, J., Griffiths, R., Murphy, E., Parker, S., Longden, E., Bowe, S., … & Tai, S. (2017). Cognitive behavioural therapy for thought disorder in psychosis. Psychosis, 9(4), 347-357. Patterson, J., Williams, L., Edwards, T. M., Chamow, L., & Grauf-Grounds, C. (2018). Essential skills in family therapy: From the first interview to termination. Guilford Publications. Selles, R. R., Arnold, E. B., Phares, V., Lewin, A. B., Murphy, T. K., & Storch, E. A. (2015). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in youth with an autism spectrum disorder: A follow-up study. Autism, 19(5), 613-621. Velthorst, E., Koeter, M., Van Der Gaag, M., Nieman, D. H., Fett, A. K., Smit, F., … & De Haan, L. (2015). Adapted cognitive–behavioural therapy required for targeting negative symptoms in schizophrenia: meta-analysis and meta-regression. Psychological medicine, 45(3), 453-465. Volkow, N. D., Swanson, J. M., Evins, A. E., DeLisi, L. E., Meier, M. H., Gonzalez, R., … & Baler, R. (2016). Effects of cannabis use on human behavior, including cognition, motivation, and psychosis: a review. JAMA psychiatry, 73(3), 292-297.

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