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CID460 Health And Social Care Question: Write a report on communication and identify main types of effective communication in health and Social Care. Answer: Introduction This essay will define communication and identify main types of effective communication in health and Social Care. The assignment will discuss the importance of communication and identify key features of effective communication in health and social care. It will focus on theoretical concepts with regard to communication and outline its significance in situations of Social and health care. It will also review the communication cycle by considering one-to-one and group interactions, various types of communication, formal and informal communication as well as various forms of interpersonal interaction. It will provide different types of potential barriers to communication that can exist within health and Social care and discuss one barrier in detail. It will also identify some communication techniques, which can be used to overcome the identified barrier and utilize examples in relation to health and Social Care. Finally, it will provide a reflective account on personal experience of communication as well as lessons for personal development and provide the conclusion. Communication And Types Of Communication Communication refers to the process through which information is exchanged from the sender to the receiver by using symbols, signs or behaviors (Bach and Grant, 2015). There are various types of communication used in the context of social and health settings which include non-verbal communication, verbal communication, written communication, and electronic communication. Verbal communication is used to obtain information from colleagues, carers or service users. It is also used to respond to questions, deal with complaints and problems as well as provide support. Non-verbal communication is used to reinforce what is being said and to communicate with individuals who have disabilities. Written communication is used to record down information to serve as proof of what is being said. Electronic communication such as ICT is used to distribute information to the staff as well as service users on special occasions. Importance Of Communication In Health And Social Care Communication plays a significant role in health and social care by allowing the staff, visitors, service users, and medical assistants to establish good relationships. Effective communication is important for those who work health and social care especially in sectors such as childcare because it enables them to build and maintain good relationships with parents and their children (Reed, Clarke, and Macfarlane, 2012). Lack of effective communication in health and social care can make practitioners not engage productively with their colleagues. This may result to improper care of children for example, in the case of Victoria Climbie which, is a historical issue of poor communication in health and social care. Failure of communication between various staff and agencies contributed to the death of Victoria Climbie. Historical Issue Of Poor Communication The case of Victoria Climbie depict the outcomes of poor communication in health and social care (Webb and Tossel, 1999). The eight years old, Climbie died because of hypothermia in February 2000 after she was neglected and tortured by her sadistic aunt Marie Kouao. She had come to Europe from her homeland in West Africa under the care of her aunt. However, the findings of her death found out that social and health care workers failed to save her at least 12 times. The major contributor being poor communication in health and social care staff. A close relative to Kouao had initially warned London Borough of Brent social services that Victoria’s life was in danger but due to poor communication, they never took action. Key Features Of Effective Communication The key features of effective communication include active listening, effective use of gestures, being objective to the point (Thompson, 2011). Active listening facilitate understanding while effective use of gestures helps in supporting the sender’s message and intention. Being objective ensures that the intended message is delivered appropriately. Effective communication, on the other hand, can improve better engagement in health and social care. For example, effective listening will facilitate the staff to listen to the concerns of the service user. By actively listening, understanding is facilitated in both the staff and the service user, which can promote better engagement. Effective use of non-verbal communication such as effective gestures in health and social care ensures that those with disabilities are actively engaged. Theoretical Concept With Regard To Communication The main theoretical concept identified with regards to communication is the Johari Window Model of communication. The communication model was developed with the aim of assisting individuals to comprehend the meaning of self-disclosure and encourage individuals to provide and accept feedback (Adams, 2007). This theoretical model is important in health and Social care situations in various ways. The model’s open area quadrant can emphasize the importance of why a caring professional while delivering care to should know who they are delivering the care to through effective communication. This can help the healthcare professional to know the patient well including their health thus promoting quality care. Communication Cycle Effective communication by use of theories such as the communication cycle of Argyle can lead to the improvement of communication skills that can facilitate effective connection with others, build respect and trust in the communication cycle. Two-way processes such as tone, voice, and body language can be improved by this communication theory thus leading to effective communication. In one-to-one and group interactions, the skills can be better facilitated thus enhancing engagement. Formal and informal communication, the theory ensures that language is moderated. For various different types of communication and forms of interpersonal interaction, they can be better guided by this theory. For example, it helps to describe when each of them can be applied effectively to facilitate effective communication. Potential Barriers To Communication In health and social care, there are various types of potential barriers to communication that exist. They include physical barriers, language barriers, social factors culture, environment, and physiological barriers among others. This barrier can deter effective communication in health and social care in the event that they are not properly handled. For instance, in language barriers, it may include the use of terms such as jargon where unfamiliar, overcomplicated and technical terms are used. Another’s example is that of physiological barriers such as sickness. In this case, a patient can be presented in a mental health center suffering from Alzheimer’s disease with symptoms and signs of poor memory and confusion. This can be misinterpreted and thus affect communication between the carer and the patient. Physical Environment Barrier One of the main potential barriers to communication is a physical environment, which includes visual factors, noise, and unfavorable temperatures. The visual factors include vision, the angle of viewing, body language, noise, and lighting. This barrier may have potential effects to individuals, for instance, bad conditions of lighting in the situation of face-to-face interactions can influence the ability of the nurse to perceive nonverbal communication, obscuring body language and visual clues. It can also limit a disabled person with hearing impairment not read the visual language. Visual noise can distract a nurse from examining a patient. Also, audio noise such as background noise can interfere with the ability of the nurse to hear clearly from the patient which can lead to information misinterpretation. Ways And Communication Techniques Of Overcoming Physical Environment Barrier Various communication technique can be used to overcome physical environmental barriers. Bad conditions of lighting can be overcome by using a room with enough light. The room should be too dim or bright to facilitate visual communication between the patient and the career. Also, verbal communication can be utilized by speaking clearly so that the patient can perceive the message. Visual noise can be overcome by using visual clues and sign language. Another way to overcome this is by moving the patient to a room that is free from the exterior and internal noise or distractions. Temperature barriers can be overcome by maintaining an ambient temperature that is suitable as well as conducting Regular checkups to ensure that the patient is always kept comfortable. Strengths And Weaknesses Of Communication And Interpersonal Interactions Communication and interpersonal interactions have varied strengths and weaknesses. For instance, a carer with communication strengths is able to communicate effectively with fellow colleagues and clients in healthcare while an individual with communication weaknesses will often feel frustrated because of being unable the language of communication around. Such individuals may often struggle to use communication techniques. An individual with interpersonal interactions strengths, for instance, will find it easy to engage with patients while the one with weakness will find it difficult. Proper use of different forms of communication and different types of interpersonal interaction can positively affect and enhance the principles of care. This is because they are part of the aspects of the principles of care in effective communication when effectively applied. Personal Reflection Communication is vital in our day-to-day interaction with one another as it allows us to exchange social status, information, and ideas with one another. In my personal experience, I learned to the importance of communication in health and social care context. I came to realize that I had the desire to serve others but I had the weakness poor listening skills, which is one of the essential aspects of communication. I had the feeling that most people I used to attend were less important than I was. Therefore, I had the trouble of engaging better with my colleagues, which made it difficult for me to understand or listen to their concerns. I came to full realization that this problem was getting worse because most of the time I could not give adequate solutions to the problems that were being relayed to me. However, this problem has now changed since I realized that I had this weakness. I have realized how it is easy to communicate effectively with others and engage them effectively. As a result, I am now able to build rapport with my fellow colleagues. I have my strengths and weaknesses in communications skills, especially in verbal and non-verbal communication. My strengths in verbal communication are that currently, I am able to listen more from other through active listening. In non-verbal communication, I have a skill of using various visual such as gestures, which makes it easy to interact with people with disabilities. I feel motivated through the positive feedback I receive from colleagues. I have been able to demonstrate my skills of communication through various meetings and discussions with some of my colleagues and friends. However, I also have some weaknesses in specific areas of verbal and non-verbal communication. At the individual level, I have learned various lessons in my personal development, which include effective communication in health and social care, self-awareness, and knowledge, developing strengths, improving health as well as building an identity. I have learned that non-verbal communication serves five main roles in health and social care, which include informing, regulating interaction, expression of intimacy, the establishment of social control and signal functions (Bolton, 2012). In my pursuit of personal development, I have learned that any form of development whether organizational or personal requires a framework that one can use to determine whether a change has occurred. In verbal communication, my weakness is that I have trouble knowing the right time to intervene within a conversation. Being quiet is the major contributor to this. In nonverbal communication, my weakness is that sometimes I find it hard to effectively use sign language to communicate with the disabled. The lessons of my personal development have enabled me to learn and understand that most people have the problem of listening that interferes with effective communication. Attending and listening are some of the most essential aspects of an effective social and healthcare professional I have obtained so far. I am obliged to listen more from others. I will continue building the communication skills that I have a weak. Conclusion The essay has considered various types of communication, their uses and their significance in health and social care. It has depicted how poor communication can cause issues by giving an example of historical issues. Effective communication and interpersonal relations in health and social care have been found to be significant at personal and organizational level. Therefore, it is essential for each healthcare worker and service user to acknowledge and focus on improving their skills on this subject as well as on personal values. Key features of effective communication have been identified which provided the basis for how communication can improve better engagement. The theoretical concept of communication has been linked to its benefits with regard to health and social care. It has shown how it facilitates the communication cycle in one-to-one and group interactions. The key potential barrier to communication has been found how it can affect access and outcomes of an individual in health and social care. However, various ways and communication techniques have been found to overcome the barrier.  Finally, personal reflection has been discussed with regard to personal experience and lessons for personal development. References Adams, R. (2007). Foundations of health and social care. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.  Bach, S., & Grant, A. (2015). Communication and Interpersonal Skills in Nursing. 3rd ed. London: SAGE Publications. Bolton, G. (2012). Reflective practice: writing and professional development. 3rd ed. Los Angeles: Sage. Reed, J., Clarke, C. L., & Macfarlane, A. (2012). Nursing older adults. Maidenhead, Berkshire: Open University Press/McGraw-Hill Education. Thompson, N., & Thompson, N. (2011). Effective communication: a guide for the people professions. 2nd ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave  Webb, R., & Tossell, D. (1999). Social issues for carers: towards positive practice. 2nd ed. London: Arnold.

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