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CMM93010 Health Systems Policies And Practices

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CMM93010 Health Systems Policies And Practices Question Assessment Details Comparing two healthcare systems/policies/practices and analysing the future of the initial healthcare system/policy/practice. This report should be prepared in a way to recommend solutions for improving the healthcare systems/policies/practices. To be considered in preparing this report: Comparison Between Two Healthcare Systems/Policies/Practices Compare the healthcare system/policy/practice chosen in Assessment (public or private) with another healthcare system/policy/practice in another country/region/state/organisation. The comparison needs to be critical, discussing differences between the implementations, successes, advantages, disadvantages, weaknesses, strengths of each healthcare system/policy/practice. This needs to consequently result in recommendations for how the two healthcare systems/policies/practices can learn from each other to improve their outcomes. Analysing The Future Of Healthcare System/Policy/Practice Initially Chosen In Assignment Analysethe future of healthcare system/policy/practice initially chosen in Assessment. Discussion addressing the current shortcomings of the healthcare system/policy/practice (considering the social, cultural, financial, political and environmental factors affecting the healthcare system/policy/practice). Answer  Introduction It is very important for people to stay and healthy. Only a healthy person can be happy and productive in his/ her life. Thus the people in every nation no matter which class, creed, sex they belong to need proper health insurances to cover their health expenditures. The government in most of the nations is now very active and conscious about providing health coverage to its people for the social welfare of the nation. The policies, systems and practices of healthcare are quite different across the globe. In this paper, the healthcare system of Australia has been analysed and evaluated with emphasis on the Public Private Partnership (PPP). This healthcare system varies from that of other nations and so a comparative study has been made between the healthcare system of Australia, PPP and that of France which has a universal healthcare system. In the last section of the paper the future prospects of the healthcare sector has been analysed and required recommendations have been made. It is very important for people to have a health insurance because the people who are uninsured will get less of medical care and access to required medical services. In fact the people who come under no healthcare coverage will not get a timely treatment for their health issues. This would result in poor health standards and poor quality of life for the people. The timely and quality healthcare provided to the people will reduce the fiscal burden on the patients and their families. The costs of the healthcare coverage are less than the benefits which the people and the government get out of these services and insurances.   Comparing The Healthcare Systems Of Australia And France Healthcare is a very important part of a person’s life and most of the people want to get insured for healthcare. The reason behind this is that a proper healthcare coverage helps the people to get a timely treatment for their health issues as well as get it without pinching their pockets. However, not all healthcare systems across nations or even within the same nation provide similar coverage. Public Private Partnerships In Australia The healthcare system of Australia follows he hybrid model which provides healthcare based on the Public Private Partnership (PPP). This system facilitates the health care of the citizens as well as the refugees. They can utilise the healthcare from the private as well as the public healthcare concerns. The main concept of a PPP is that the public agency comes into a contract with the private agency, one of which can be a for profit and the other a not-for-profit organisation, for providing healthcare services, equipment, facilities, etc (FASO, I. B. 2016). In case of the PPPs the public officials or agencies come together with the private service providers, civic groups, media, etc. in order to plan, implement and evaluate the required healthcare services for the people of Australia. The PPPs are neither a national or state system nor a service coming from privatisation of the healthcare sector. Advantages Of PPP  The main advantage of the PPP healthcare system is that it promotes adequate investment for resource management in the public as well as the private sector. The public services which used to be delayed earlier are now prompt (Osei-Kyei & Chan, 2015). People are getting timely provision as well as good quality of services from the combined efforts of both the sectors. The projects which are taken up under the PPP systems are implemented within the due time and do not incur huge unwanted costs of execution. The private sectors put in their expertise and the years of experience into the PPP projects making them a huge success. The risk management is also properly planned and the people are well insured for all their healthcare requirements (Delmon, 2017). The people get a priority treatment from the best specialists under this system. The system provides a continuous flow in the healthcare. The private sector health insurance transferability is also ensured under PPP. Disadvantages Of PPP  There are several disadvantages of the PPP system. This healthcare system requires expensive services and infrastructure. The fiscal indicators of the public sector can be affected by the PPP project payments out of the public sector funds (Sharma & Bindal, 2014). The procurement of the PPP service takes a longer time. These are in fact much costlier than the traditional procurement procedures. The major disadvantage of the PPP is that these projects for healthcare are for a longer duration of time (Chou & Pramudawardhani, 2015). The projects are more complicated and quite inflexible in nature. The other cons of the PPP are the high cost of seeking healthcare services which are under the Non-Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme, the variation in the insurances of the private sector, the premium payment inconsistency, etc. The PPP can be of great advantage to the people of Australia if the initiatives are taken to understand the suitability of a particular project which is implemented in the provided setup. The PPP projects needs proper evaluation and apt selection understanding the needs of the people. The projects which are initiated under the PPP must be analysed for understanding their benefits, threats, efficiency, etc. The main requirement for all PPP projects is the far sightedness during the planning. Universal Healthcare In France In France the healthcare system which is implemented widely is the Universal Healthcare. Under this system, the healthcare projects and programmes are all financed by the government through its national Health Insurance (Gray & Jani, 2016). In the survey of the World Health Organisation in the year 2000, it was said that the healthcare system of France is closest to the best possible healthcare which can be provided to the people in a nation. The healthcare system is such that the funds come partially out of the social security contributions. These contributions are made out of the deductions from the salary of the employees. The combination is such that the employers pay around 13 percent towards the healthcare while the employees pay 8 percent out of their salaries towards covering the healthcare costs. The government pays a part of the healthcare while the patient during the care makes a small amount of contribution to the healthcare expenses. Universal system of healthcare provides the healthcare facilities to all the people irrespective of their abilities to pay for the care. This is an initiative of the federal government. Advantages Of Universal Healthcare There are many pros of the universal healthcare as this healthcare system helps in reducing the costs of healthcare in France. The prices for medical services and medication are under the control of the government. There are many regulations on the pricing of healthcare services and they are subject to negotiation as well. The private health insurers do not have to be dealt with incurring a huge administrative cost. The medical professionals are also facilitated as they now deal with the government agency directly. The hospitals and service providers have to provide the best facility possible at the lowest cost. The system of Universal Healthcare helps the people to be a part of a workforce which is healthier and much more productive. The preventive care is provided to the people in due time. The need for emergency rooms in less as the people are already provided and insured for the required healthcare. Disadvantages Of Universal Healthcare The major drawback of the universal healthcare system is that the people are forced to pay for the healthcare of the other people as well (Abou-Haidar,, 2014). Most of the healthcare costs are made up of the heart diseases and diabetic problems. The total healthcare costs are consumed by the 5 percent population who are the sickest. They consume up to 50 percent of the healthcare facilities while the majority of healthy population use only 3 percent of the healthcare benefits (Martin,, 2014). People under universal health care system tend to neglect their health as they know that they are already fully insured for their healthcare. There are people who purposely use the emergency rooms and medical care of doctors as they know that they have a free access to it without any further pay. The copay system makes people mean in using their healthcare facilities (Robert & Liu, 2014). The government aims at providing the best healthcare but the waiting time for accessing the healthcare is quite long and inconvenient at many times. The universal care can be improved by making the system more efficient in providing the treatment in a prompt manner. The burden of paying out of the pockets for the healthcare must be reduced. The people need to be aware of their health care and not wait for using their insured care facilities. Which Is System Is Better: Universal Healthcare Over PPP? One would want to choose either the universal healthcare system or the Public-Private Partnership based on their respective benefits. The former has coverage for more number of healthcare services than the later. However Australia has an added advantage in terms of the expenditure. The facilities and quality of care provided in France is much better than any other country and it is cheaper than the care provided in U.S (Lee,, 2014). In Australia, the care and the services are also quite high standard. In fact one would want to choose the PPP over the universal healthcare system because unlike the former the people are not compelled to pay for the healthcare. The people in Australia are given free inpatient, medicines, access to the care units, etc. There are some voluntary health insurances as well which cover for the services which do not come under public scheme coverage. The government is Australia makes around 75 to 85 percent contribution towards outpatient care and other medical services. One is better off by the combined care of the private and public agency, which they get though PPP in Australia. Future Of Public Private Partnership Healthcare System Of Australia The Australian healthcare system is a combination of Universal health care or the Public healthcare providers and private healthcare providers (Australian Institute of Health, 2012). The majority healthcare system is provided by the public hospitals and rest is provided by the private sector. Although, Australian healthcare system is one of the best in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), it has been issues concerning rise in demands of better healthcare and improved policies. There has been a constant pressure to deal with the changing needs of patients and various technological advancements. Considering the future changes, policymakers can address the changes required in the policies related to patients, patient’s engagement in healthcare delivery and remodeling the funding mechanisms. If compared to any other healthcare system in the world, Australian healthcare system, it still faces certain issues and to fill the gap, improvements are warranted. Medicare is a mandatory public insurance scheme in Australia providing healthcare coverage to its citizens. The Medicare policy has two components, direct payment made to the doctors and payments made to public hospitals through state and territories (Wade, Soar & Gray, 2014). The formulation of various health policies concerning public health is still dependent on Commonwealth. Commonwealth shares the costs with other state and territory governments in order to implement improved health policies. The prospects considering the healthcare policies is on the brighter side. State and territory government can help the Public hospitals to follow quality and performance mechanisms which are established by the federal government.   Australia has an array of physicians and health practitioners providing advanced healthcare facilities to its citizens. Australia’s health policy encourages its patients to select either public or private healthcare system to get treated. Both public and private systems provide utmost care for the patients. It is also observed that unsubsidized part of private hospitals expenses and medical costs are mostly covered by private insurance plans. The improvements can be done in policies of private hospitals in order to reframe their medical costs. This can be a barrier for patients who do not have private insurance. Researchers and experts have coined that the expenditure of patients can be reduced by length of their hospital stays. Current incentive policies of medical practitioners can be redesigned to improve their efficiency. Australian healthcare system uses the bundled payment system where the opportunity lies in creating a model that focuses only on patient convenience while making the policies. In comparison with the French healthcare system, Australian healthcare must improve its payment policies (Himmelstein, 2014). The waiting time policies needs to be redesigned. There needs to be a cultural change considering the gaps in discharge policies rather than making structural changes in them. The policies should consider improving the quality of care provided to the patients. The policies should be framed for regular health check ups in the rural Australian regions where the quality of healthcare is comparatively lower than the services provided in the major cities. The Aboriginal Australian people experience the worst healthcare in entire Australia. Policy makers are considering about the growth in maintaining electronic health records in their systems. Universal Healthcare System Of France The healthcare system of France is a model of national health insurance that aims at providing health care coverage to all the legal citizens of France. The France healthcare system is a combination of public security and private health care financing services (Rosen, 2015). The healthcare system gives its patients a freedom to choose their desired doctors and hospitals, there is a diversity in selecting the best healthcare service options, there are policies for patients who are financially not strong. Although there are a range of policies that make healthcare system of France one of the best in the world, there are certain policy changes that needs to be addressed. These policies help in providing better and improved services to patients. There is a difference in French system of healthcare in comparison to other European healthcare systems. The French healthcare system does not a choice to its patients in terms of selecting their health insurance policies. The essential services provided in the plan must be taken by the patients which becomes an issue and needs to be addressed. It is also observed that insurers pay the same price for the services provided in the hospitals. The patients in French healthcare system are provided with the liberty to select their preferred doctors and healthcare facilities to get treated. There are no restrictions regarding this, but the patients have to pay a higher amount to privately visit a doctor. But policy makers are constantly making policies to reduce the expenses.  The policy should also consider framing co-insurance and voluntary health insurance coverage. There are expenses which the patients incur even after getting covered in their basic insurance plan. There should be policies to fund these expenses such as the co-insurance policies in future. This will put lesser burden on the patients and free voluntary health insurances can be provided by the French government. Although, co-insurance may help the patients who are financially not strong, policies for sicker patients and elders should also be framed. The patients who earn below the ceiling set by the French government, they should be provided with co-insurance and their payments should be covered within that insurance. This issue can be resolved by framing policies by the National Health Insurance of France. Patients who are suffering from serious medical conditions should be provided with various benefits like a longer stay and expenses should be covered in their policies. There should be policies that should benefit the patients by setting up their annual expenditures. The policy should include the cost of expenditure of certain illness and medical facilities that the patient wishes to avail. The Parliament can approve the annual budget for the healthcare services target in the coming years. The physicians should charge low from patients who are financially not stable and prices can be negotiated with them in the coming years. It should be the responsibility of the French government and the National Health Insurance to understand the needs of the patients and accordingly frame policies to benefit them. Recommendations And Conclusion After a close perusal of above facts and information it can be concluded that every citizen throughout the world desire to lead a healthy life. In fact, they also desire to get a health insurance done so that they can reap the best fruits out of the sum they have insured. Australia follows the system of a hybrid model, which is known as the Public Private Partnership. This is a wide system incorporating the health issues of a wide quantity of citizens. France follows the module of the Universal Healthcare whereby the French government is involved to provide health care facilities and insurance to all the citizens. Both these systems possess their own advantages and disadvantages and the people have to choose them wisely as per their needs. There often lies a confusion with regard to the choosing of one over the other. But having a look at the advantages and disadvantages sector, one can easily decide based on their requirements. To improve the Universal Healthcare, it is recommended that the costs which are forcibly paid by the people must be reduced. It is also recommended, that the distribution of these facilities should be divided amongst the population who are sicker even more. Another recommendation for this is that it should be made more convenient for the people. With regard to the PPP system, it is recommended that the prices should be decreased and the facilities should be made more advanced to cure the diseases. The time span should also be reduced to reach the effectiveness of its action. It is further recommended that the fiscal indicators of the public sector should not be impacted upon the working of the PPP. The complications should be reduced and it easy for people of all sections to use it efficiently. The implementation of these recommendation would make the systems more attractive. References Abou-Haidar, H., Abourbih, S., Braganza, D., Al Qaoud, T., Lee, L., Carli, F., … & Kassouf, W. (2014). Enhanced recovery pathway for radical prostatectomy: implementation and evaluation in a universal healthcare system. Canadian Urological Association Journal, 8(11-12), 418. Australian Institute of Health. (2012). Australia’s Health 2012: In Brief. London, UK: AIHW. Chou, J. S., & Pramudawardhani, D. (2015). Cross-country comparisons of key drivers, critical success factors and risk allocation for public-private partnership projects. International Journal of Project Management, 33(5), 1136-1150. Delmon, J. (2017). Public-private partnership projects in infrastructure: an essential guide for policy makers. London, UK: Cambridge University Press. Gray, M., & Jani, A. (2016). Promoting Triple Value Healthcare in Countries with Universal Healthcare. HealthcarePapers, 15(3), 42-48. Himmelstein, D. U., Jun, M., Busse, R., Chevreul, K., Geissler, A., Jeurissen, P., … & Woolhandler, S. (2014). A comparison of hospital administrative costs in eight nations: US costs exceed all others by far. Health Affairs, 33(9), 1586-1594. Lee, S., Dazkir, S. S., Paik, H. S., & Coskun, A. (2014). Comprehensibility of universal healthcare symbols for wayfinding in healthcare facilities. Applied ergonomics, 45(4), 878-885. Martin, Y., Collet, T. H., Bodenmann, P., Blum, M. R., Zimmerli, L., Gaspoz, J. M., … & Rodondi, N. (2014). The lower quality of preventive care among forced migrants in a country with universal healthcare coverage. Preventive medicine, 59, 19-24. Osei-Kyei, R., & Chan, A. P. (2015). Review of studies on the Critical Success Factors for Public–Private Partnership (PPP) projects from 1990 to 2013. International Journal of Project Management, 33(6), 1335-1346. Roberts, C. W., & Liu, H. (2014). On the cultural foundations for universal healthcare: Implications from late 20th-century US and Canadian health-related discourse. Journal of Communication, 64(4), 764-784. Rosen, G. (2015). A history of public health. London, UK: JHU Press. Sharma, M., & Bindal, A. (2014). Public-Private Partnership. International Journal of Research (IJR), 1(7), 1270-1274. Wade, V., Soar, J., & Gray, L. (2014). Uptake of telehealth services funded by Medicare in Australia. Australian Health Review, 38(5), 528-532.

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