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EPI 520 Infectious Diseases Epidemiology

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EPI 520 Infectious Diseases Epidemiology Question: Infectious disease surveillance is essential for case detection, illness distribution determination, and hypotheses generation. The final application of these data is to investigate, prevent, and control a given infectious disease. Ongoing data collection and data integration, two key features of surveillance, are critical to conduct and evaluate specific public health efforts leading to infectious disease prevention. While surveillance of infectious disease is important, sometimes data collection and data reporting for infectious disease surveillance may interfere with individual liberty. Consider the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, when the United States required mandatory screening, examination, and reporting of the names of HIV/AIDS infected individuals to public health registries (Bayer, 2007). This practice resulted in intense controversy surrounding the efforts to preserve the right of individuals. For this Discussion, select a recent example of an increase in reportable infectious disease in your community that was not an outbreak. Consider the major issues surrounding the increase of cases and how surveillance was used to identify the cases. Think about the data collection and reporting of infected individuals and consider if such activities may intrude on privacy and restrict the liberties of its citizens in order to serve the common good. Post: A description of the increase in cases for the disease you selected and explain how surveillance was used to identify the cases. Describe two challenges in monitoring the spread of the infectious disease you selected. As an epidemiologist explain how you might balance the need to control infectious diseases and individual liberties. Provide an example to support your view. Answer: Introduction: The surveillance of the infectious disease is a significant footstep for the case detection, the determination of illness distribution and the hypothesis generation. Due to the expansion of the international trade in biological products related with medicine and food stuff, environmental changes related to deforestation and urbanization along with increasing movements of the people, the surveillance of the global infectious diseases is the very important concept (WHO | Global infectious disease surveillance, 2017). In this research study, one of the important infectious diseases HIV/AIDS has been selected for discussion. The surveillance of this disease helps to identify the reason of increasing this disease by investigating the collected data. Moreover, two challenges of this disease have been evaluated during controlling, monitoring and preventing the process. Apart from this, the way of managing this infectious disease has been analyzed along with a suitable example.    A Brief Overview Of The Increase In Cases Of The Chosen Disease: The current status of CDC reveals the information that HIV/AIDS remains a serious health issue in the United States (US) where approximately 47,500 people are infected with this virus. The CDC report also states the fact that adolescents and adults are mostly affected by this infectious disease in the US. On the other hand, the African Americans, gay, bisexual men and Latinos of all ethnicities or races are affected by AIDS/HIV (new-hiv-infections, 2017). Figure 1: Estimation of HIV infections in the US in the year 2010 Source: (new-hiv-infections, 2017) This above figure showcases the estimation of the new HIV/AIDS infections in the US where the most and severely affected sub populations are presented. From the CDC report and estimation, it can be stated that the spreading of this infectious disease is mainly found in MSM, heterosexuals and injection drug users (IDUs) in the US. The complex branch of socioeconomic and economic factors drive the risk of being infectious by HIV/AIDS to the above-stated type of populations including the stigma, poverty, lack of proper care and discrimination. On the other hand, as per the view of Newkirk & Hedberg (2012), the sexual networks are a significant factor for spreading this infectious disease. Furthermore, the sex relations with the people who have suffered from HIV also ensure the high risk of being affected by this infectious disease in their associated communities. Identification Of The Surveillance: The surveillance team investigates and collects data about the current statistics of HIV/AIDS in US. The estimation report highlights the fact that near about 1.2 million people are living with this infectious disease in US. Approximately one people among eight are fully unaware that they suffered from HIV (HIV and AIDS in the United States of America (USA) | AVERT, 2017). Though the percentages of affected people are comparatively low with respect to the population of the country, it is concentrated on specific types of population. Figure 2: Identification of the affected area in the US Source: (todaysepidemic, 2017) According to this figure, the diagnosis rate is highest in South which is approximately 18.5, followed by the region of Northeast (14.2) in US. Furthermore, in the region of West, it is 11.2 and Midwest is 8.2. From the year 2010 to 2014, the diagnosis rate of HIV infections has decreased in South and Northeast whereas, this rate remains stable in West and Midwest region of US. Figure 3: Identification of new HIV infections and Prevalence from 1980 to 2012 Source: (todaysepidemic, 2017) The above figure presents the estimation of new HIV infections and Prevalence of US from 1980 to 2012. The statistics infer the fact that the numbers of HIV patients have increased day-to-day. On the contrary, the new HIV infections are comparatively stable despite raising HIV prevalence and opportunities of HIV transmission. Two Challenges During Monitoring The Spread Of The Infectious Disease: During the time of controlling and monitoring the spread of the infectious disease by the surveillance team, the uneven healthcare system, addressing discrimination and stigma of HIV are major challenges for the USA. The survey result depicts the information that most of the people are uncomfortable in having a relationship with HIV patients. On the other hand, near about 44% people are “somewhat” or “very” uncomfortable in staying with an HIV patient as a roommate. Moreover, some people convey that they are comfortable in working with the HIV patients. Apart from this, the location of the region and the socio-economic group are important factors for getting HIV care and prevention in US. The non-white people from the South region experience the negative medical help in US (Glynn, Lee & McKenna, 2017). Apart from this, the economic barrier is also a major challenge for surveillance team during the monitoring period of HIV disease. The federal budget is a limited amount of money for the prevention of HIV disease which is approximate $34.0 billion including the year 2016. However, the commitments of increasing funds have not met; even the funds for the cure of injection drug users are controversial. Moreover, the federal funding for reducing the HIV transmission was banned from 2009 (Nsubuga et al., 2017). A Brief Description Of Balancing And Controlling The Infectious Disease With A Suitable Example: This infectious disease can balance and control by the High-Impact Prevention (HIP) system in US. With the implementation of this approach, the most and severely affected areas and populations can get the medical benefits with a structured way. The “Data to Care” approach by HIP strategy collects the information about the people who diagnosis HIV but not fully cure. On the other hand, the health department of US organizes the HIV test along with counseling method so that the people are aware of this disease. The improved treatment process, sex education and antiretroviral treatment system help to maintain balance and control the HIV in US (Edward H. Kaplan, 2017).   Conclusion: From the above discussion, it can be inferred that the HIV/AIDS has turned into a severe threat not only to US but also for the whole world. The increasing number of patients with HIV, lack of proper treatment, unawareness, limited funds and uneven medical care are the major barriers for recovering the infectious disease. However, several ways out has also been presented which helps to maintain balance and control the HIV/AIDS in US.     Reference List: Edward H. Kaplan, M. (2017). Allocating HIV-Prevention Resources: Balancing Efficiency and Equity. PubMed Central (PMC). Retrieved 9 April 2017, from Glynn, M., Lee, L., & McKenna, M. (2017). The Status of National HIV Case Surveillance, United States 2006. Retrieved 9 April 2017, from HIV and AIDS in the United States of America (USA) | AVERT. (2017). Retrieved 9 April 2017, from new-hiv-infections. (2017). Retrieved 9 April 2017, from Newkirk, R. W., & Hedberg, C. W. (2012). Rapid detection of foodborne botulism outbreaks facilitated by epidemiological linking of cases: Implications for food defense and public health response. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, 9(2), 150–155.  Nsubuga, P., White, M., Thacker, S., Anderson, M., Blount, S., & Broome, C. et al. (2017). Public Health Surveillance: A Tool for Targeting and Monitoring Interventions. Retrieved 9 April 2017, from todaysepidemic. (2017). Retrieved 9 April 2017, from WHO | Global infectious disease surveillance. (2017). Retrieved 9 April 2017, from

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