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ET7738 Exploring Literacy Difficulties And Dyslexia

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ET7738 Exploring Literacy Difficulties And Dyslexia Question Knowledge 1) Develop understanding of pedagogy and practice to support learning for students with dyslexia. Thinking Skills 2) Analyse, evaluate and reflect on current curriculum practices within own context. Subject –Based Practical Skills/Skills For Work 3)Demonstrate professional skills in addressing the needs of students with dyslexia. Answer Introduction: Among the various different learning difficulties that are prevalent in the society, dyslexia can be identified as the one of the most abundantly found learning disability among the children. As discussed by Rappolt-Schlichtmann, Boucher and Evans (2018), dyslexia can be identified as a very common learning disability which restricts the children from reading, writing, and spelling. Dyslexia is a specific learning difficulty, although this particular disease is not affecting the intelligence of the individuals. The impact of dyslexia is not just on the educational life of the children, but it also deteriorates the social experience that the child has and paves way for bullying and affected self-esteem. There is mounting evidence which has emphasized on the developmental pattern of dyslexia and how it affects the individuals. However, there is very minimal evidence on proper assessment of the disease and providing adequate and timely treatment to the individuals struggling with dyslexia. This report will aim at exploring and critically analysing the dyslexia assessment appraisal tool and critically evaluate the existing literature to evaluate the effectiveness of such tools and the relevance of using the same. Assessment Dyslexia is a hidden disability and generally exhibits a number of complex challenges, not just with the literacy but also with processing, memory, sequencing and organisation. Teachers needs to have an understanding of the problem that a dyslexic child might have within the classroom situation (Reid 2016). A child suffering from dyslexia might find the acquisition of the literary skills a bit difficult and might suffer from a lot of anguish and trauma as they can be mentally abused by their peers and the within the school setting, because of their learning difficulties. Much of their suffering can be alleviated by the integration of the child in the school environment where he/she can feel comfortable. Educators might be particularly confused by the students who are consistent in underachieving. Hence these child should be made to feel different from their peers and simply because they are unable to follow the simple instructions (Bell 2013). It is the duty of the teachers to set a classroom environment that is inclusive for these children, which can be done by adopting special teaching strategies. But for that it is first necessary to assess the receptive language score, phonological awareness, and phonological memory, numeracy and the writing score of the concerned students (Bell and McLean  2016). Such formal assessment can be useful in the development of the inclusive curriculum for these children. Appraisal Assessment: The assessment tool that is being utilized in this setting is the diagnostic literacy assessment, which is a remarkable and abundantly used assessment tool in the health care setting for learning disabilities. The assessment tool is thorough and extensive and it covers a large variety of important factors associated with the dyslexia. As discussed by Steinbrink et al. (2014), dyslexia, despite being only a learning disability, has association with affecting the personal and social life of the child as well as affecting the educational life of the child. Hence, proper diagnosis and early treatment has potential benefits in easing the life and lived experience of the children suffering from these particular issues. Brief Overview: The assessment tool begins with context or reasons of concern, which describes the patient, their characteristics and the presenting problems. It has to be mentioned that it is crucial for the assessment tools to evaluate the impact of the disability on the living characteristics of the patient to be able to design and implement care adequately. The next few sections of the assessment focuses on the summary and background information about the client, to have a clear ideation regarding the onset of the disability, its impact on the life and living condition of the patient is considered here. The next section features a few investigative tests that are performed to assess the extent or severity of the disability and also confirm whether the child has the disability or if there is any possibility of other health adversities leading to the presenting symptoms (Jaffe-Dax, Daikhin and Ahissar 2018). There are three standard tests that are performed in the diagnostic tests that are performed for the children such as the BPVS, CTOPP, and NARA. The BPVS stands for British Picture Vocabulary Scale or BPVS3 is a standard English vocabulary test. As discussed by Price?Mohr and Price (2018), BPVS is one of the few most abundantly used diagnostic tests utilized for assessing dyslexia or similar related learning disabilities. NARA or Neale analysis or reading ability and CTOPP or comprehensive test of phonological processing which is another very famous and interesting test that has been used abundantly in use for assessing the extent that dyslexia has affected the patient (Griffiths and Kelly 2018). Along with that the assessment has also evaluated and explored reading, spelling, writing, numeracy, underlying ability, cognitive processing and other relevant information with respect to strengths and weaknesses as well, which will not only help in assessing the extent of the challenges but will also aid in developing or designing a patient centred plan based on the identified strengths and weaknesses. Recommendations: There are three sets of recommendations have been provided to K, general, for reading and for writing. The general recommendations are associated with providing 1:1 support, dyslexia friendly classroom, multisensory learning approach, and nonverbal cues of communication, structured phonics programme, and progress review techniques. According to the article by Montgomery (2017), the impact of dyslexia friendly classrooms with interactive learning modalities such as multisensory approach, nonverbal communication and phonics program can help improve their learning process. Similarly, with reading and writing recommendations such as phonic based reading scheme, rereading phrases, and visual imagery based learning techniques can also help improve the learning ability and progress of learning as well (Reid and Guise 2017). Srivastava and Haider (2017) in their article have discussed regarding the need for personalized interventions for the children suffering with dyslexia. In this case, the recommendations have successfully identified the individualistic needs of K and recommended very specialized and focused interventions for him such as structured phonic programs such as Dandelion Readers, Jelly&Bean, Sound Start and the use of keyboard skills such as TextEase and ClaroRead indicate at the recommendations being very specific and personalized for him. Although the recommendations are thorough and very specific, it has to be acknowledged that the recommendations are not enough for any teacher with no prior knowledge of dyslexia help the student optimally. However, few of the recommendations do feature a few whole class based recommendations such as communication improvisation and incorporating visual imagery based recommendations for the children. Although, it also has to be mentioned that a few key components of whole classroom strategies such as triple exposure is not recommended for K as well. Working Memory And Recognising Strengths: Working memory is a very important aspect of learning for people with learning disabilities, in this case the working memory has not been addressed effectively in the recommendations as well. Although, it was not evident from the assessment that whether k had a pertinent working memory issue, however, the need for working memory oriented issues was not optimally addressed in the recommendations which is a definitive con. Recovery is optimally focussed on identifying and utilizing the strengths of the student and designing the recommendations based on the strengths as well (Griffiths and Kelly 2018). This assessment report has also analysed and recognized the strengths of K as well, although it is unclear whether the recommendation plan for K has followed the strengths that have been identified as well. However, as the recommendations are highly personalized, it can be hoped that the recommendations have also been based on the strengths along with weaknesses. A Critical Analysis Of Wider Policy And Pedagogy Issues The effect of the dyslexia can be manifested in a variety of ways and hence should not be underestimated. The management of dyslexia is possible with the early identification of this conditions. Instances of early identification of the condition is identifiable from the report. The tests that have been used in this report (Reid 2016). According to the Section 19 of the Children and the Families act 2014, children with special educational needs should be given regards to the views, feelings and the wishes of the young person and the child (Department for Education. 2015). The recommendations that has been given in the reported supported the need of K, for example it can be seen that K will be benefitted from a dyslexia friendly classroom. It has been rightly discussed that an inclusive classroom should provide a multisensory approaches to learning, which can be related to the factors. According to the principle the classroom environment should be designed to activate the sensory motor system of the child (Andrade et al. 2012). The principle had always focused on the inclusive practices and removing barriers to learning. The role of the local authorities in the decision making process is indispensable. The local authorities should ensure that children and the parents of the young people should know that children, parents and the young people are involved in the discussions and the decisions about their individual support and about the local provisions. The Office for Standards in Education, Children’s Services and Skills (Ofsted) have reviewed the needs of the children with SEN and have reviewed some recommendations required for providing support to them (OFSTED. 2010). This also complies with the brook’s review, where emphasis has been given on the identification and the assessment of the child. According to the Brook’s review, it is important for the school to evaluate the effectiveness of the tools used for the review and the assessment of the child. A number of Test defined in the report such as assessing the rapid naming and the processing speed, single word reading, reading accuracy and assessing the reading speed has been found to be appropriate in testing the cognitive processing of K.  According to the recommendations it is necessary, that the early year providers, schools and the colleges should be able to meet the wider range of the additional needs of the children. The report was provided an account of the strengths and the weaknesses of K, which will be helpful to decide the children specific pedagogical curriculum. It can be seen from this report that cognitive processing has been analysed by assessing the phonological awareness of the child. For that, blending word test and blending non word test can be used to measure the ability of the combined speech of the child. In order to set activities that will help in the language acquisition in the child it is necessary to assess his capability to separate phonemes and form the non- words. Furthermore, as per the Brook’s review, it is necessary to provide additional funding for the SEN pupil. It can be seen that the report nothing has been discussed about any kind of governmental support. As per the Brook’s review, the schools should provide extra privileges should be given to enable that all children gets the opportunity to develop emotional resilience and the social skills.   Conclusion Children having SEN calls for special educational provisions and before forming any curriculum framework, it is necessary to assess the needs of the children. The set of tests reported such as assessment of the numeracy skills, assessment of the underlying ability has been found to be ideal for assessing the cognitive status of this child. The different formal assessment techniques that has been discussed in this report has been found to be useful in assessing sensory motor skill and the gross motor skills of the child. Furthermore, the recommendations that has been provided complies with the OFSTED report, which emphasis more on the involvement of the child’s need and the early interventions to support these kids. The recommendations emphasizes on the role of the local groups in the developing the inclusive curriculum practices.  However, very little information has been provided about the role of the local government in developing an inclusive practice. In this paper the review has been evaluated on the basis of the OFSTED report and the Brook’s review. References Andrade, O.V., Andrade, P.E. and Capellini, S.A., 2015. Collective screening tools for early identification of dyslexia. Frontiers in psychology, 5, p.1581. Bell, S. and McLean, B., 2016. 10 Good Practice in Training Specialist Teachers and Assessors of People with Dyslexia. Special educational needs: A guide for inclusive practice, p.152. Bell, S., 2013. Professional development for specialist teachers and assessors of students with literacy difficulties/dyslexia:‘to learn how to assess and support children with dyslexia’. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 13(1), pp.104-113. Department for Education. 2015. Special educational needs and disability code of practice: 0 to 25 years .Access date: 29.12.2018. Retrieved from: Griffiths, D. and Kelly, K., 2018. Beyond the broom cupboard: teaching assistants’ reflections upon the wider impact of their specialist dyslexia training. Reflective Practice, pp.1-13. Jaffe-Dax, S., Daikhin, L. and Ahissar, M., 2018. Dyslexia: A failure in attaining expert-level reading due to poor formation of auditory predictions. In Reading and Dyslexia (pp. 159-175). Springer, Cham. Montgomery, D., 2017. Dyslexia-friendly Strategies for Reading, Spelling and Handwriting: A Toolkit for Teachers. Routledge. No to failure, final report (2009).Access date: 29.12.2018. Retrieved from: OFSTED. 2010. The special educational needs and disability review . Access date: 29.12.2018. Retrieved from: Price?Mohr, R.M. and Price, C.B., 2018. Synthetic phonics and decodable instructional reading texts: How far do these support poor readers?. Dyslexia, 24(2), pp.190-196. Rappolt-Schlichtmann, G., Boucher, A.R. and Evans, M., 2018. From deficit remediation to capacity building: Learning to enable rather than disable students with dyslexia. Language, speech, and hearing services in schools, 49(4), pp.864-874. Reid, G. and Guise, J., 2017. The Dyslexia Assessment. Bloomsbury Publishing. Reid, G., 2012. Dyslexia and inclusion: classroom approaches for assessment, teaching and learning. Routledge. Reid, G., 2016. Dyslexia: A practitioner’s handbook. John Wiley & Sons. Srivastava, B. and Haider, M.T.U., 2017. Personalized assessment model for alphabets learning with learning objects in e-learning environment for dyslexia. Journal of King Saud University-Computer and Information Sciences. Steinbrink, C., Zimmer, K., Lachmann, T., Dirichs, M. and Kammer, T., 2014. Development of rapid temporal processing and its impact on literacy skills in primary school children. Child development, 85(4), pp.1711-1726.

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