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HBEHED600 Psychosocial Factors In Health Related Behavior

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HBEHED600 Psychosocial Factors In Health Related Behavior Question Discussion: Addressing Behavioral Risk Factors “It is unreasonable to expect that people will change their behavior easily when so many forces in the social, cultural, and physical environment conspire against such change” (Kovner and Knickman, p. 139). When seeking to lessen behavioral risk factors in different populations, one of the greatest challenges is addressing the systemic issues within the population that enable the risky behavior to occur in the first place. Consider the health risks of school-age children not being immunized or drug users sharing needles. As Dr. Beilenson discussed in the Week 4 media program, these risky behaviors led to increases in individual and population health problems. Thus, when planning health prevention programs, it is important to consider how to effectively address risky behaviors at both the individual and the population level. The Discussion this week focuses on the use of the Population-Based Intervention Model outlined in the course text Health Care Delivery in the United States, as well as how this model can be applied to strengthen advocacy programs. To Prepare: Select one of the behavioral risk factors from the Healthy Population 2010 Objectives (listed in Table 7.1 on p. 122 of the course text) that is of interest to you. Using the Walden Library and other credible websites, research how this risk factor is affecting your community or state. With your selected risk factor in mind, review the information on the Population-Based Intervention Model on pp. 132-137 in the course text, Health Care Delivery in the United States. In particular, focus on the concept of downstream, midstream, and upstream interventions. Consider at least one intervention that could be put into place at each stage. By Day 3 Post a description of the behavioral risk factor you selected and how this factor is impacting your community or state. Using the Population-Based Intervention Model, suggest at least one intervention that could be put into place at each stage (downstream, midstream, and upstream) to ensure that a health prevention program addressing the behavioral risk factor would have a greater chance at succeeding. Justify why each intervention you identified would be effective. Answer Intervention Of Tobacco Smoking Statistics show that twenty-five percent of the US adults are frequent users of tobacco (Hollnagel, 2017).  Tobacco smoking has been cited as one of the world’s all-time lethal killers. The greatest side effect of smoking is cancer, a crazy development and spread of anomalous cells that is now top among the world’s chronic ailments. Smoking makes one susceptible to the danger of experiencing cardiac infections, lung complications, stroke, and other respiratory sicknesses. The body develops terrible reactions to the conventional assault of smoking. Smoking destroys the veins in limbs for instance, which leads to restricted flow of blood and subsequently the removal of the appendages. Additionally, an addicted individual will, sooner or later, begin experiencing eye irritations which prods visual damage. Noxious hair, foul breath and even  balding become imminent. These body reactions are as a result of perilous synthetic substances contained in cigars. Until tobacco addiction is contained, more families will continue to experience economic hardships sustaining the addiction and in worst cases grapple with the loss of loved ones. This work presents an upstream, midstream, and downstream population-based intervention model on how to effectively avert cigarette smoking at the population level. Downstream intervention strategies are mechanisms that aim at changing existing behaviors, through mass education and counseling members of the community that are currently involved in risky behavioral practices (Hill et al., 2014). One particular cognitive-behavioral interposition that has proven to be more effective is group counseling sessions where smokers get to share their experiences on the challenges they may be facing in quitting tobacco. Toll-free smoker helpline numbers can be distributed to groups and individuals so that they can gain a 24-hour access to counseling services. Group counseling as Yang (2017) claims, are capable of yielding up to 40 percent quit rates if they are properly combined with effective pharmacotherapy. The figures may be even higher if the majority of the smoking population are least addicted and have no psychiatric comorbidity. The second part of the population-based model is the mid-stream interventions. This part of the model concentrates considerably more on avoidance of unsafe practices, as opposed to changing existing practices. It additionally centers on a lot more extensive gathering of individuals, instead of little gatherings or individuals. It thus works with a simple formula of encouraging new healthy behavior while discouraging risky ones. Worksite initiatives such as subsidizing of insurance premiums for employees who do not smoke can be a nobble program.  Although not so widespread, the strategy is cost effective and greatly discourages those who may be yearning to try smoking. If adopted countrywide, it can produce a bigger figure of quit rates since the common US smoking population are engaged in some form of employment. The fact that there is substantial financial gain associated with non-consumption of tobacco is a motivation enough to quit smoking (Wiese, Piercey, & Clark, 2018). Despite numerous failed attempts by the federal government to legislate tobacco control, great milestones have been achieved upstream. The decision by the government to raise excise duty on tobacco products has by far been the most successful. With smoking progressively getting confined to low-income earners, the tobacco control network can easily gain an upper hand in raising the taxes and subsequently the cost of cigarette (West et al., 2015). There is starter proof that increments in the unit cost of tobacco may possibly decrease smoking-related risk factors (Wray et al., 2017). This is because it does not encounter a lot of hurdles like other upstream strategies. Furthermore, it is easier to implement and cost-effective. Revenues collected from these tax hikes are used to fund tobacco control initiatives. The strategy thus presents a self-sustaining mechanism which if well implemented could significantly lessen future consumption rates and associated medical complications (Yang, 2017 p.226). References Hill, S., Amos, A., Clifford, D., & Platt, S. (2014). Impact of tobacco control interventions on socioeconomic inequalities in smoking: review of the evidence. Tobacco control, 23(e2), e89-e97. Hollnagel, E. (2017). FRAM: the functional resonance analysis method: modelling complex socio-technical systems. CRC Press. West, R., Raw, M., McNeill, A., Stead, L., Aveyard, P., Bitton, J. & Borland, R. (2015). Health?care interventions to promote and assist tobacco cessation: a review of efficacy, effectiveness and affordability for use in national guideline development. Addiction, 110(9), 1388-1403. Wiese, H. J. C., Piercey, R. R., & Clark, C. D. (2018). Changing prescribing behavior in the United States: moving upstream in opioid prescription education. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 103(6), 982-989. Wray, J. M., Funderburk, J. S., Acker, J. D., Wray, L. O., & Maisto, S. A. (2017). A meta-analysis of brief tobacco interventions for use in integrated primary care. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 20(12), 1418-1426. Yang, Q. (2017). Are social networking sites making health behavior change interventions more effective? A meta-analytic review. Journal of health communication, 22(3), 223-233.

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