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HCMG101 Health Care Systems Question: Topic: Professional Liability and Medical Malpractice. 1.Identify three areas of general liability for which a physician/employer is responsible. The practices building and grounds, Job-related automobile use, Employee Safety. 2.Describe the reasonable person standard, standard of care, and duty of care. 3.Briefly outline the responsibilities of health care practitioners concerning privacy, confidentiality, and privileged communication. 4.Explain the four elements necessary to prove negligence (the four Ds). There are four elements that must be present in a given situation to prove that a health care professional is guilty of negligence. Sometimes called the “four Ds of negligence,” these elements include: Duty—The person charged with negligence owed a duty of care to the accuser. Dereliction—The health care provider breached the duty of care to the patient. Direct Cause—The breach of the duty of care to the patient was a direct cause of the patient’s injury. Damages—There is a legally recognizable injury to the patient. Answer: General Liability Of Physicians General liability is a must have insurance for all small business and if a doctor has his or her own business in their offices then insurance is mandatory in order make patients safe and secure. General Liability insurance includes premised liability, products liability and complete operations (USA Business Insurance, 2018). Premises liability insurance belongs to commercial general liability insurance. It takes care of the service users’ interest. For example, if a patient is injured in an automobile accident and have visited the doctors’ clinic for treatment then the premises liability will pay for the costs which will be incurred in order to receive the medical treatment. This coverage is also applicable for property damage (USA Business Insurance, 2018). Products liability is applicable if the physicians also sell medicines. If a patient is harmed or injured after consuming or using the medical products purchases from the clinic of the concerned physicians and damage cost will be payable under the products liability (USA Business Insurance, 2018). Completed operations coverage protects the office of the physicians from the lawsuits that mainly arise after the doctors have complete services or any medical operations on the patients. Completed operations insurance refunds for the litigation expenses, settlements and damages (USA Business Insurance, 2018). Reasonable Person Standard Reasonable Person Standard is a critical test that is used to state the legal duty in order to safeguard one’s own interest or other associated with that interest. The standard demands a person to act with the equal degree of knowledge, care, experience, fair mindedness and complete awareness about the prevailing law, which the community would expect out of certain hypothetical yet reasonable person. In relation to bioethics, under reasonable person standard, a patient will be informed about the material risk associated that would influence a reasonable person in selecting whether to provide informed consent in the treatment (Man, 2013). The Standard Care The concept of “the standard of care” is popular among the healthcare professionals and the legal definition of the standard of care is guided by clinical practice guidelines. The applicable standard of care under medical malpractice lawsuits differs among the jurisdictions in the United States. The locality rule requires defendant physicians to deliver same level of skills and care that is required by the other doctors practicing in the same or similar community. This lawsuit mainly places a defined geographical dimension over the prevailing professional standard of care in the medical negligence litigation (Moffett & Moore, 2011). Duty Of Care Physicians have a legal responsibility to deliver standard care with skills to their patients. The lawful duty of care is generated when the physicians agrees to treat the patients who have availed his or her medical services. While determining what duty of care the said patients require, the physicians should take into consideration whether the care they are providing is what the “reasonable physician” would deliver under the similar circumstances. It is important that a healthcare specialists exercise a higher level of skill in the domain of their expertise (Davies & Shaul, 2010). Responsibilities Of Healthcare Practitioners Confidentiality in healthcare generally refers to the obligation of the healthcare practitioners who have adequate access to the patient’s personal or health-related records in order to hold that information in confidence. This complete professional obligation to secure confidentiality of the health related information is further supported under the professional association codes of ethics, American Health Information Management Association Code of Ethics. The act of confidentiality is recognized by law as privilege communication between the healthcare professionals and patients or their family members in order to develop professional relationships (Farnan et al., 2013). Privacy is different from confidentiality as viewed under the light of right of the individual client or the service users. The privacy mainly defines the onus of the service users or patients to let alone and to take decision about how the personal information is shared with others. However, U.S Constitution does not clearly specify a “right to privacy”. The privacy rights with respect to the individual healthcare decisions differ under the federal and state statutes. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 guide the privacy rights of the patients in United States (Farnan et al., 2013). It is the duty of the healthcare practitioners to conserve the privacy and confidentiality right of the patients through the applicable of the privileged communication. The personal information and the health related information of the patients should be kept confidential and must only be disclosed under the informed consent of the patients. It also satisfies the ethical concept of privacy. This is applicable while managing the patient’s data through the electronic medical records (EMRs) (Farnan et al., 2013).   Four Elements Necessary To Prove Negligence Four “D”s of negligence includes Duty, Dereliction, Direct Cause and Damages. Duty: The person who was on duty was found guilty. In other words, it can be said that the person who owned the duty of care to the accusing patient is found negligence. Dereliction: Dereliction signifies that the healthcare provider breached the duty of care to the concerned patient. Direct cause: Direct cause means that the healthcare practitioner who was found guilty is the direct cause of the patient’s injury. Damages: It signifies that there is significant injury to the patient, which is noticeable (Hall et al., 2018) Phases Of Lawsuit Medical malpractice cases can be defined as an example of one particular type of tort. Here tort is regarded as “negligence”. The theory of negligence is defined by the fact that people should be careful and accountable in what they do and if gaps or negligence is found in their duty and they should be held responsible for that loss (Rothman, 2017). The first phase of filing medical lawsuit requires the injured person to prove that he or she have received substandard medical care which has caused to the subsequent injury. This deals with a number of steps. Firstly, the person who is harmed during process of treatment must determine whether or not they are harmed by the inappropriate care. Physicians or other healthcare practitioners are not legally abided by to inform the patients that they are hurt by the medical care, it is the independent call of the patients or their family members. Patients who are under multiple healthcare providers is require to determine which of the care plans have contributed to the injury (Rothman, 2017). After the determination of the patients, a malpractice case can be brought within the legally prescribed period known as “statute of limitation”. Once the patient highlights malpractice lawsuit, the person (plaintiff) is required to show that they are actually under the care of those particular physicians they are charging. In other words, patients-physicians relationships must be established. The next line-up in the requirement is the heart of a negligence lawsuit. In this, the plaintiff must highlight that physician failed to deliver medical care that is as per the standards. Even if the physician is found to provide substandard care, the concerned plaintiff is required to prove himself that the substandard care has caused their injury. The final step in filing lawsuit for medical malpractice is establishment of the amount of money, which should be awarded to the wining plaintiff (Rothman, 2017). Alternative Dispute Resolution There are a number of advantages of Alternative Dispute Resolution in general over litigation. Two main advantage of alternative dispute resolution is it is fast and comparatively less costly. Here the people have a chance to tell their own story in their own perspective. The overall concept is more flexible and responsive towards the individualized need of the people (Man, 2013). References Davies, C. E., & Shaul, R. Z. (2010). Physicians’ legal duty of care and legal right to refuse to work during a pandemic. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 182(2), 167-170. Farnan, J. M., Sulmasy, L. S., Worster, B. K., Chaudhry, H. J., Rhyne, J. A., & Arora, V. M. (2013). Online medical professionalism: patient and public relationships: policy statement from the American College of Physicians and the Federation of State Medical Boards. Annals of internal medicine, 158(8), 620-627. Hall, M. A., Orentlicher, D., Bobinski, M. A., Bagley, N., & Cohen, I. G. (2018). Health care law and ethics. Wolters Kluwer Law & Business. Man, H. (2013). Medical Malpractice Liability. In Legal and Forensic Medicine (pp. 605-619). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. Moffett, P., & Moore, G. (2011). The standard of care: legal history and definitions: the bad and good news. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 12(1), 109. Rothman, D. J. (2017). Strangers at the bedside: a history of how law and bioethics transformed medical decision making. Routledge. USA Business Insurance. (2018). Business Insurance for Doctors and Family Practitioners. Access date: 12th November 2018. Retrieved from:

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