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HEAL843 Interdisciplinary Practice With Older Adults

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HEAL843 Interdisciplinary Practice With Older Adults Question: Part 1 1.1 Pick New Zealand and one other country. Briefly describe the life expectancy’s (with citations) What is the same and what is different about the life expectancy’s between each country with citations e.g. which is higher/lower–Gender variations Ethnicity variations Geographical variations Variations in rate at which they are increasing, decreasing or plateauing Give three recommendations of how the NZ older adult’s life expectancy could be improved with reference to things that have worked well in the country you outlined with the higher life expectancy Part 2 2.1 What is “age friendly” –discuss–What is the same about how “age friendly” as a concept is incorporated into the Healthy Ageing Strategy vs Global Strategy and Action Plan on Ageing and Health–What is different about how “age friendly” as a concept is incorporated into the Healthy Ageing Strategy vs Global Strategy and Action Plan on Ageing and Health 2.2 Why are “age friendly” communities important e.g. what evidence supports this Answer: Part 1 1.1. The term life expectancy can be defined as the statistical measure of the average time an individual is expected to live. Life expectancy of an individual depends on several factors that includes the year of birth, demographical factors, gender, the healthcare facilities of the nation and others. The life expectancy statistics helps an individual to understand the mortality as well as the survival rate of that nation. The average life expectancy of New Zealand is 81.61 years. According to the data presented by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the year 2017, the male life expectancy at New Zealand is 80.5 years and that of the female is 82.2 years which gives the nation a World Life Expectancy Ranking of 15. When it Comes to Japan, , according to the data presented by WHO in 2018, the male life expectancy of the nation is 81.1and that of the female is 87.1 which makes the average life expectancy o the nation 84.2 years (Livingstone et al., 2017). Due to high life expectancy, Japan has been ranked as number 1 in the World life Expectancy ranking.  From the above mentioned data it can be clearly understood that the life expectancy of Japan is much higher compared to that of New Zealand. Several similarities as well as dissimilarities can be pointed out if the life expectancy of New Zealand and Japan is compared. For instance, it can be clearly understood from the above mentioned data that the life expectancy of the male gender in both the nation is lower than that o the female. Inn both the countries the death of men in coronary artery disease (CAD) is three times higher compared to women. Not only this, the male suicide rate of both the countries  a outnumbered the female suicide rate in every age group.  While these are some similarities in life expectancy between both the nation, there prevails several dissimilates between New Zealand and Japan when it comes to ethnicity variation, geographical variation and variations in rate at which they are increasing, decreasing or plateauing.  When it comes to the ethnicity of the New Zealander, it can be divided into two parts that is, the major ethnic group that is the Europeans and the minor ethnic groups that is Maori and Asians. While the major ethnic group consists of 74 percent of the total population the rest is comprised of the minor ethnic group. According to researchers, considering the fact that the individuals who belongs to the minor ethnic group  in New Zealand lacks  appropriate healthcare facilities along with other discrimination, the life expectancy rate of the mentioned group is a major reason behind the low life expectancy rate of the nation (Kontis et al. 2017). When it comes Japan, t is said that Ethnic Japanese make up 98.5% of the total population and that the rest are  Korean, Chinese and others. The Japanese pays 69.7 percent more taxes compared to NZ and have 41..4 percent fewer children. Not only has this, a Japanese invested 44.35 percent more than a New Zealander for healthcare. However, when it comes to HIV, the both are equality likely to get the disease. When it comes to the geographical variation, the population of New Zealand is nearly two times compared to that of Japan. The literate of Japan is also higher than NZ. High population and lower healthcare opportunities in New Zealand compared to that of Japan can be considered as a major reason behind the low life expectancy of the New Zealand. As per the data obtained, the life expectancy rate of both the nations is increasing. 1.2. From the above discussion it can be clearly understood that there prevails several differences in ethnicity, practices, government and healthcare system of the two nations, that is resulting in the difference in life expectancy between them.  One of the chief reasons of lower life expectancy is the increasing number of older adults in New Zealand. In the last 48 years, the number of older adults has got increased by  151 percent. This rate is increasing much faster than rest of the population. For instance, the number of children under 15 years and the working population has evidenced an increment in growing rate by 12 and 23 percent by the previous year , whereas the rate of growth of the aging population was 53 percent (Mathers et al., 2015). Thus it can be clearly understood that in order to enhance the life expectancy of the overall nation, it is crucial to enhance the life expectancy of the order adults. Considering the fact that the life expectancy of the older adults in Japan is highest across the world, in order to enhance the same of New Zealand, the following three recommendations should be followed by the government of the nation. Considering the fact that one of the chief reasons behind death of the older adults in New Zealand includes heart diseases, cancer and stroke, leading a healthier life style can be considered as a major factor that posses the potential to enhance the life expectancy of the older adults. In Japan, grains make up to 40.7 percent of the diet compared to 13.3 percent in New Zealand. The traditional Japanese diet is made up of fish, rice, pickles , vegetables and miso soups served in small healthy portions, regular consumption of these diets prevent accumulation of fat in the body which is considered to be the chief reason behind heart disease and stroke (Collins, Tutone & Walker, 2017). Hence it is recommended that the government of NZ should promote healthy lifestyle through campaigns since in Japanit has resulted in measurable improvements Another major issue faced by the older adults in New Zealand is lack official and physical security. The abuse rate of older adult in high. This fact is imposing impact on both the mental as well as physical wellbeing of the same. In Japan, the governments along with several Japanese companies have invested on housing where elderly people can live safely and conveniently. NZ can follow this recommendation in order to enhance the life expectancy of the older people. Thirdly, the Japan government invests a huge amount of the annual budget on healthcare facilities of the older adults. Majority of the medicines and treatments are either free or bear minimal cost in the nation. This measure can be adopted by NZ since it is one of the major reasons behind increased life expectancy o older people in Japan (Zealand, 2015). Part 2 2.1. Older individuals face several challenges due to the sensory as well as other changes that age brings to them. In order to eradicate the issue, the concept of “age-Friendly” has being designed. In an age friendly community, all the services, policies and structures are associated with the physical s well as social environment that are designed to support as well as enable older individuals to age grace fully. Public as well as commercial services and settings are made accessible in order to accommodate the varying levels of ability (Abbott et al., 2017). The chief aim of an age friendly community is to provide effective care to the older population by recognizing the great diversity between them, promote their contribution as well a inclusion in all areas of community life and respect their lifestyle choices and decision. When it comes to both the healthy aging strategy as well as the global Strategy and Action Plan on Aging and health, both the plans has been designed in order to enhance the healthcare condition of the older service users as well as to reduce social issues like abuse of older adults. The aim of the healthy aging strategy is to develop a health system that works for each and every older new Zealander. Among the five strategic objectives of the mentioned healthcare plan, developing age-friendly environments is a major one.  Similarly, one of the five strategical objectives of the WHO Global strategy and action plan on ageing and health includes developing age-friendly environments. In both the strategies, the concept of age friendly environment is to develop communities that commits to physically accessible as well as inclusive social leaving environment which promote healthy as well as active aging and good quality life (Chatterji et al., 2015). In both the cases, Age-friendly communities provide new opportunities for developing knowledge and skills for healthy ageing, and for the health sector to partner with older people in developing health and resilience. When it comes to the dissimilarities between the two mentioned strategies that is, the Healthy Aging Strategy as well as the Global Strategy and Action Plan on Aging and Health, it can be said that the approaches and implementation of both the strategies are slightly different (Beard et al., 2016). For instance, in the former strategy, the age friendly concept is entirely based on the issues faced by the people of NZ along with social abuse and discrimination. The age-friendly communities are made health conscious and accessible.  However, when it comes to the approach of WHO it has concentrated more on the broader aspect that is combating ageism, enabling autonomy and supporting Healthy Aging Polices at all level. 2.2. According to researchers, health can be considered as the fundamental of living well, age well and continue to participate in family celebration as well as I the community life (Prince et al., 2015). Older individual have made a significant contribution to the society, socially, intellectually as well as economically through out there live. Hence the purpose of the aging-friendly approach is to ensure that they can continue to be active, engaged as well as enjoy their life in the future. Considering the fact that a good number of elderly people across are world are discriminated by the family members and face social isolation, the age friendly community approach has been developed in order to prevent it. Not only this, the mentioned approach also posses the capacity to reduce the impact of health issues as well as well as social abuse face by the older adults (Hyer et al., 2017). With aging majority of the people suffer from los of strengths a well as mobility that is not inevitable. According to WHO, more than half of the health conditions the older individuals experience posses the potential to be avoidable through lifestyle changes. It has been found that there prevails a positive linkage between the healthy lifestyle and physical and mental determinants of health of older adults. Considering the fact that the age friendly communities  provides the older population with a life style that is active and healthy, this approach posses the potential to solve the issue of decreasing life expectancy of nations like New Zealand. Secondly, the age friendly communities foster heath as well as well-being and the participation  of individuals as they age. These communities are accessible, inclusive, equitable and supportive. Not only these communities also  promote health and prevent or delay the onset of disease and functional decline. They provide people-centered services and support to enable recovery or to compensate for the loss of function so that people can continue to do the things that are important to them (Fisher et al., 2017).   Thus it can be clearly understood that without the age friendly environments, the health for everyone approach cannot be successful.  Each and every individual should posses thee opportunity to achieve the highest possible level of health as well as wellbeing regardless of age, culture, ethnic background and gender. Considering the fact that several older individuals across the world experience negative attitude as well as discrimination based on their age, these community prevent this mishappnings by acknowledging diversity, fighting ageism and ensuring that every individual posses the opportunity to fully participate. Creating affordable and barrier free housing, accessible transportation that are specially designed in order to make the older adult stay independent an participate in the community life, the age friendly approach can surely enhance the life expectancy of older people across the world. References Abbott, J. H., Usiskin, I. M., Wilson, R., Hansen, P., & Losina, E. (2017). The quality-of-life burden of knee osteoarthritis in New Zealand adults: A model-based evaluation. PloS one, 12(10), e0185676. Beard, J. R., Officer, A., de Carvalho, I. A., Sadana, R., Pot, A. M., Michel, J. P., … & Thiyagarajan, J. A. (2016). The World report on ageing and health: a policy framework for healthy ageing. The Lancet, 387(10033), 2145-2154. Chatterji, S., Byles, J., Cutler, D., Seeman, T., & Verdes, E. (2015). Health, functioning, and disability in older adults—present status and future implications. The lancet, 385(9967), 563-575. Collins, J. F., Tutone, V., & Walker, C. (2017). Kidney disease in Maori and Pacific people in New Zealand. In Chronic Kidney Disease in Disadvantaged Populations (pp. 157-166). Fisher, K. L., Michels, H., Martinez, M., & Rose, D. J. (2017). BENEFITS OF A MULTICOMPONENT EXERCISE PROGRAM ON MULTIPLE DIMENSIONS OF FITNESS IN OLDER ADULTS. Innovation in Aging, 1(suppl_1), 1204-1204. Hyer, K., MacDonald, G., Black, K., Badana, A. N., Murphy, S. P., & Haley, W. E. (2017). Preparing for Florida’s Older Adult Population Growth with user-friendly demographic maps. Florida Public Health Review, 13, 143-154. Kontis, V., Bennett, J. E., Mathers, C. D., Li, G., Foreman, K., & Ezzati, M. (2017). Future life expectancy in 35 industrialised countries: projections with a Bayesian model ensemble. The Lancet, 389(10076), 1323-1335. Livingstone, S. J., Levin, D., Looker, H. C., Lindsay, R. S., Wild, S. H., Joss, N., … & McKnight, J. A. (2015). Estimated life expectancy in a Scottish cohort with type 1 diabetes, 2008-2010. Jama, 313(1), 37-44. Mathers, C. D., Stevens, G. A., Boerma, T., White, R. A., & Tobias, M. I. (2015). Causes of international increases in older age life expectancy. The Lancet, 385(9967), 540-548. Prince, M. J., Wu, F., Guo, Y., Robledo, L. M. G., O’Donnell, M., Sullivan, R., & Yusuf, S. (2015). The burden of disease in older people and implications for health policy and practice. The Lancet, 385(9967), 549-562. Zealand, S. N. (2015). Census QuickStats about people aged 65 and over. Wellington: Statistics New Zealand.

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