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HLN004 Chronic Conditions Prevention And Management

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HLN004 Chronic Conditions Prevention And Management Question: Objectives:  To critically examine and review specific strategies recommended for use by an interdisciplinary team for the prevention, management OR rehabilitation of a chronic condition  To apply chronic disease prevention, management or rehabilitation strategy review findings to a chronic condition to meet the needs of a specific population in a particular setting  To synthesise and interpret relevant readings into a coherent report. Task Using the same chronic condition chosen for Assignment 1: 1) Choose a specific population and a setting for your Professional Action Plan. Both population and setting can be hypothetical or real. 2) Develop an ‘Aim’ and at least three S.M.A.R.T. objectives (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Timely) for the prevention, management OR rehabilitation of the selected chronic condition (from Assignment 1) to meet the needs of your specific population. 3) Critically examine strategies that can address your aim and objectives for the prevention, management or rehabilitation of your chosen chronic condition. 4) Create a professional action plan based on the chosen strategies for use by an interdisciplinary team for the prevention, management or rehabilitation of the selected chronic condition to meet the needs of your specific population Answer: Title: Professional Action Plan on Type II Diabetes in Australian Adolescents Introduction:  The standards of public health have taken a number of blows due to the dynamic lifestyle changes of this rat’s race of a human society we inhabit. As technology continues to surround us in every waking moment, the standard of public health is deteriorating drastically. The escalating list of public health concerns in the last decade bears the proof for the threat that this situation poses. One of the major public health concerns is considered to be diabetes, the type two variant of it specifically. Type two diabetes, in simple terms is the insulin independent type of diabetes characterized by the relative lack of insulin in the body that leads to abnormal glucose accumulation in the blood plasma. According to the results of the majority of diabetic studies, emergence of diabetes mellitus type paves way for the onset of more complicated diseases like coronary cardiac disorders, kidney disorders and decreases the life expectancy of the average human being by years considerably (DeBoer, 2013). There was a time when the incidence of the type diabetes was somewhat restricted to the middle aged or aging populations. However, the recent statistics of individuals dealing with diabetes in the last five years the show 27% of the adolescents and younger population being targeted with the type 2 diabetes (Franks et al., 2010). The situation is worsening further due to the absolute lack of awareness to the triggers of the emergence of this deadly disease in the society. This assignment will focus on prevention and management of type 2 diabetes taking the adolescents of Australia as the chosen population. Chosen Chronic Condition: Public health concern can be defined as the major and harmful health conditions that are more frequently observed in the population at a time and affects the health and wellbeing of the entire population. The major public health concerns that are prevalent in our society are coronary heart diseases, chronic kidney disorders, respiratory distress and hospital acquired infections, obesity and diabetes. Now the chronic health concern chosen for this assignment is type 2 diabetes and the justification behind this particular selection are plenty. The most conspicuous and common triggers to this particular disease are unhealthy lifestyles, unceremonious weght gain (Juonala et al., 2011). Various exploratory studies have hinted at the prevalence in the adolescent population of the disease that was initially considered to be an adult disease. In the year of 2011 to 2012 the number of adolescents suffering with type 2 diabetes was 39000, and the figure has been increasing frighteningly ever since (Malik et al., 2010). Various biomedical researchers have indicated at type two diabetes being a very costly and difficult to manage disease and the lack of preventative measures and awareness in the mass has been discovered to be one of the key contributing factors to the frighteningly increasing rate of children and adolescents suffering from diabetes. Hence this assignment will focus on the planning and implementation of the preventative strategies that can attempt to reduce the risk factors of type 2 diabetes in the adolescents and generate awareness in the mass about the early signs of this disease. Subject Population Chosen:  Any research study is dependent on the efficacy of the research methodology and the accuracy of the subject population on which the research methodologies will be performed. Is it is the voters responsibility for the researcher to determine the accurate subject population for his or her study to ensure successful completion of the research. In case of this study the focus is on increasing incidence of diabetes in different age groups (Norris et al., 2011). Now it should not escape notice, that the incidence of this this disease has been frequently observed in the adult and aging population since the last two decades, however in the younger population the incidence of diabetes type 2 was not very frequent a few years ago. The change in the Lifestyle structure and the increasing amount of stress in airlines has led to the Jungle population being the victims of this deadly disease as well. However many research studies have indicated at the preventive measures and their potential success in preventing and managing diabetes type 2. Hence the subject population for this study will be adolescence that are dealing with obesity and are at high risk of diabetes to measure the change that the preventative Strategies and Healthcare education can bring in the younger population and standardise the preventative strategies. For more simplification in the study the subject population of adolescence will belong Queensland an urban area of Australia. Focus Of The Study: As discussed above in the assignment, type 2 diabetes had been one of the major Public Health concerns among the adult population in the last decade and now has even become a dread among the adolescent and children population as well. And the condition is worsening even more due to the lack of awareness in this generation and the lack of any preventative measures in place by the government on health care authorities among the masses. various exploratory research studies have been devoted to the determination of the underlying causes behind the increasing rate of risk factor of diabetes type 2 in the adolescence of different developing countries but there has been no effort in determining the change that preventative measures and strategies can bring (Nowicka etv al., 2011). The main focus behind the study will be constructing a series of statistical curated preventative strategies that will be implemented on small subject population of adolescence belonging to the Queens Land area and determined that changed it can bring to the rest factor of diabetes among these children. Along with that the study will also a time to facilities diabetes prevention and management education in these children with high risk factor. The Aim Of The Study:  The aim of a research exploration is concerned with the definite and concrete set reasons that propels the flow of the research study. The aim of the research drives the purpose or the goals that the research study attempts to achieve. In order for research study to be successful the researcher must construct a set of concrete AIIMS that will be the main focus behind the study and the strategies or methodologies incorporated on implemented in the research study will lead to the completion of treatment of the same (Simpson et al., 2011) The aim of this research study will focus on determining the effects the preventive measures of diabetes and patient education on diabetes type 2 will have on the adolescence population that has been selected for this assignment. This is a study will be a pilot assignment that will clearly distinguish between the effective and ineffective prevented Strategies and how effective the preventative strategies can be in reducing the risk factors in of the orbis adolescence that are at high risk to diabetes. S.M.A.R.T. Objectives Of The Study:  Unlike the aim of the study, objectives and much more specific and accurate that falls under the umbrella terms the AIMS have described about the research study. The games are much more discreet and broad about the purpose and focus of the research to be carried out objectives on the other hand are much more specific to the point and precise set of goals that will be achieved in the research study. Whereas AIIMS will define the motive behind the study the objectives will define the set of principles and achievements that the study will attempt to articulate in its duration. Now the objective model that will be followed in the assignment study will be smart objectives. Smart objectives are concerned with objects that are specific, measurable, attainable, relatable or relevant, and timely (Sørensen et al., 2011). The purpose behind choosing smart object is that the set of smart objective make the research study and its activities much more precise accurate and scientific. Developing smart goals for the assignment will ensure that the research study promises in a direction that is attainable accurate and relatable to the purpose behind the study. The street smart objectives pre determined for this assignment study is, Determine the rest factor 2 diabetes among the chosen population of higher so bees adoloscent with the history of diabetes 2 in the family. Articulate and implement a set of strategic preventative measures on the population to check whether the preventative measures can bring any change or can reduce the risk of diabetes 2 in the chosen  population. Measures the changes in the condition and lifestyle of the obese adolescent population selected for this assignment and measure the time required for the preventative strategies to bring fruitful results. Preventative Strategies:  It should not escape notice that diabetes is a highly Aqua disease and it depends heavily upon the band Lifestyle choices and living standards. The major triggers behind the accumulation of diabetes type 2 is the absurdly increasing body weight, obesity as in simple terms, that in the majority of areas in our society is heavily neglected. Diabetes type 2 is mainly concerned with the abnormal amount of blood glucose accumulated in the body that leads to Hyper uraemia and other such medical complications of diabetes brings forth. Hannstar prevented strategy should focus on reducing the body weight of the subject population in an attempt to reduce the respected to diabetes 2 (Tirosh et al., 2011). The very first preventative strategy that will be implemented on the subject population will be cutting of the  unhealthy greasy food items from their diet completely. Studies have suggested at the difference that healthy diet can bring to the best population and how it can reduce the risk factor 2 diabetes significantly. Hence the subject population will be kept on highly healthy and fibre based diet for 2 months straight to evaluate the changes it can bring to the subject population. The diet that the subject population will be kept on will include more vegetable and fibres that are rich in Carbohydrate and vitamins and minerals rather than greasy protein or fat items. It has to be understood that the glucose and cholesterol accumulation are the major reasons for the occurrence of diabetes two hands cutting of the cholesterol rich diet completely might be beneficial in reducing the risk factors significantly. The second preventative strategy that will be implemented on the subject population will be a rigorous and regular physical exercise Regime to burn off the extra calories and cholesterol  that can otherwise be accumulated in the body post feeding. It has to be understood that exercise burns of the extra blood glucose ingested and prevents any chance of the blood glucose be accumulated in the body. Directorate physical activity will also flash the toxins out of the body and will help the body except the changes and impart positive effect of the changes (Tirosh et al., 2011) Along with rigorous physical activity to change the subject population will be also kept to a meditation on yoga routine to facilitate focus in their lifestyle and help them cope with the changes that are being made instantaneously.  the power of meditation and yoga is that it allows the individual to not only improve the metabolic activities of the body and flush out the extra toxins but also allows them to generate a single minded focus about the changes they need to bring to their lifestyles to prevent the risk of diabetes. The fourth strategy that will be implemented will include the adolescents being educated about the adverse effects of obesity and diabetes to and how preventing the onset of this disease can help them reduce the risk factors substantially and continue with their normal lifestyle (Tirosh et al., 2011). Preventative Action Plan:  Aim: To reduce risk factors for Diabetes type two among adolescents of the Queensland area of Australia.   Objective Strategy Actions Outcome measures Outcome indicators By who? Timeline 1. To screen for risk to diabetes type two in he adolescent population of the victoria area Screening for abnormality in the blood glucose levels in the adolescents and measuring ther body weight and early signs of hyper uraemia. – Clinical audit of health records and checkup data of the adolescents selected for the study. – Invite families to free checkup of blood glucose level for the adolescents – Train practice staff to measure blood sugar and signs for hyper ureamia   – Inform families about the objectives of the screening. – Order pathology tests – Audit of pathology results – Records of audit           – Record of attendance     – Minutes of the training session   – Record of session/consultation with families         – Records of pathology orders   – Record of results – 65% of the adolescents were found to be at risk for diabetes two – Families – Practice staff: Nurses, GPs, administration staff – Pathology lab – Public health officer 1 month 2. Apply the preventative strategies that have been previously selected for the assignment. To implement healthier diet in the at risk adolescent To implement regime for physical activity in the at risk adolescent Educate the adolescent about the adverse effects of diabetes type two and how the preventative measures can help in reducing the risk factor. Cut off greasy or fatty food items from their diet plan. Incorporate fibre rich vegetable and whole grains rich diet. Enrol the adolescents in a physical exercise program for twice a day. Enrol them in a yoga and meditatio program for thrice a week. Enrolling them for a educative program once a week about diabetes two and how it can be prevented. Records of changes in the body weight.   Records of changes in the blood glucose level.   Records of changes in the hyperureamia 50% of the adolescents could reduce the risk factors significantly. Pathological testing staff Public health officers Physical instructor Health care professionals The patients educators and instructor 6 months  Conclusion: On a concluding note it can be said that diabetes to surely become one of the most dreadful emerging Public Health concerns among all the age groups. Hi away with the right preventative measures the risk factors can be significantly reduced. The changes in all night stand and reduction in fashion choices has been asked to be kept in a lot of medical concerns that are the grading our life expectancy and living standards. The lack of awareness and preventive measures also add fuel to Flame that has lead to this frightening increase in younger population being grasped by diseases like diabetes.  Hence care should be taken in distinguishing the early signs of diabetes and preventing it so that the younger generation can be free to enjoy life without the added burden of diabetes. References: American Diabetes Association. (2014). Executive summary: standards of medical care in diabetes—2014. American Diabetes Association. (2015). 2. Classification and diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes care, 38(Supplement 1), S8-S16. Borus, J. S., & Laffel, L. (2010). Adherence challenges in the management of type 1 diabetes in adolescents: prevention and intervention. Current opinion in pediatrics, 22(4), 405. Boyko, E. J., Jacobson, I. G., Smith, B., Ryan, M. A., Hooper, T. I., Amoroso, P. J., … & Millennium Cohort Study Team. (2010). Risk of diabetes in US military service members in relation to combat deployment and mental health. Diabetes care, 33(8), 1771-1777. Cowie, C. C., Rust, K. F., Byrd-Holt, D. D., Gregg, E. W., Ford, E. S., Geiss, L. S., … & Fradkin, J. E. (2010). Prevalence of diabetes and high risk for diabetes using A1C criteria in the US population in 1988–2006. Diabetes care, 33(3), 562-568. de Vathaire, F., El-Fayech, C., Ayed, F. F. B., Haddy, N., Guibout, C., Winter, D., … & Schlumberger, M. (2012). Radiation dose to the pancreas and risk of diabetes mellitus in childhood cancer survivors: a retrospective cohort study. The lancet oncology, 13(10), 1002-1010. DeBoer, M. D. (2013). Obesity, systemic inflammation, and increased risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes among adolescents: a need for screening tools to target interventions. Nutrition, 29(2), 379-386. during pregnancy and risk of type 1 diabetes in the offspring. Diabetes, 61(1), 175-178. Franks, P. W., Hanson, R. L., Knowler, W. C., Sievers, M. L., Bennett, P. H., & Looker, H. C. (2010). Childhood obesity, other cardiovascular risk factors, and premature death. New England Journal of Medicine, 362(6), 485-493. HEALTHY Study Group. (2010). A school-based intervention for diabetes risk reduction. N Engl J Med, 2010(363), 443-453. Juonala, M., Magnussen, C. G., Berenson, G. S., Venn, A., Burns, T. L., Sabin, M. A., … & Sun, C. (2011). Childhood adiposity, adult adiposity, and cardiovascular risk factors. New England Journal of Medicine, 365(20), 1876-1885. Malik, V. S., Popkin, B. M., Bray, G. A., Després, J. P., & Hu, F. B. (2010). Sugar-sweetened beverages, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease risk. Circulation, 121(11), 1356-1364. Norris, S. A., Osmond, C., Gigante, D., Kuzawa, C. W., Ramakrishnan, L., Lee, N. R., … & Fall, C. H. (2011). Size at birth, weight gain in infancy and childhood, and adult diabetes risk in five low-or middle-income country birth cohorts. Diabetes care, DC_110456. Nowicka, P., Santoro, N., Liu, H., Lartaud, D., Shaw, M. M., Goldberg, R., … & Caprio, S. (2011). Utility of hemoglobin A1c for diagnosing prediabetes and diabetes in obese children and adolescents. Diabetes care, 34(6), 1306-1311. Reilly, J. J., & Kelly, J. (2011). Long-term impact of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence on morbidity and premature mortality in adulthood: systematic review. International journal of obesity, 35(7), 891-898. Simpson, M., Brady, H., Yin, X., Seifert, J., Barriga, K., Hoffman, M., … & Erlich, H. (2011). No association of vitamin D intake or 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in childhood with risk of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes: the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY). Diabetologia, 54(11), 2779. Sørensen, I. M., Joner, G., Jenum, P. A., Eskild, A., Torjesen, P. A., & Stene, L. C. (2012). Maternal serum levels of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D Tam, W. H., Ma, R. C. W., Yang, X., Li, A. M., Ko, G. T. C., Kong, A. P. S., … & Chan, J. C. N. (2010). Glucose intolerance and cardiometabolic risk in adolescents exposed to maternal gestational diabetes. Diabetes care, 33(6), 1382-1384. Tamayo, T., Herder, C., & Rathmann, W. (2010). Impact of early psychosocial factors (childhood socioeconomic factors and adversities) on future risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic disturbances and obesity: a systematic review. BMC Public Health, 10(1), 525. Tirosh, A., Shai, I., Afek, A., Dubnov-Raz, G., Ayalon, N., Gordon, B., … & Rudich, A. (2011). Adolescent BMI trajectory and risk of diabetes versus coronary disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 364(14), 1315-1325.

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