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HPRO6715 Foundations Of Health Promotion

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HPRO6715 Foundations Of Health Promotion Question: Introduction/Background: In this section, you need to identify a specific health issue (e.g., Cardiovascular Disease) and a justifiable risk factor/behaviour (e.g., high cholesterol due to dietary choices). Start with the broad scope of the issue, such as, Worldwide, cardiovascular disease accounts for xx% of the total burden of disease.” Work through the issue and related risk factors to focus in on a specific risk factor and associated behaviour. End the section with identification of a specific target population including justification and a rationale for needing to examine health promotion programmes that may help address the health issue in the identified population. Methods: The methods section should be relatively brief and provide a clear and concise description of how you systematically went about identifying the literature you reviewed for the paper. You may wish to consider using a diagram to depict your logic. This section should include identification of library databases searched (e.g., MEDLINE) and key words used as well as your criteria for picking articles to include and a rationale for all the above. Results: The results should provide the reader with a critical synthesis of what has been learned about health promotion programmes aimed at addressing the health issue. It is suggested you organize the literature into 2-3 key themes (maybe more depending on your framework for analysing them; e.g., a social determinants framework would have 10 or so key areas). Describe what has been learned on each theme using the literature to support. Also include a section on theoretical frameworks used in the programmes you have learned about from the articles discussing strengths and weaknesses. Discussion/Conclusion: Based on the results you have presented, provide 2-3 key points of discussion and relate back to the original health issue, risk factor and target population identified in the Introduction. This section should leave the reader understanding not only what has been learned from the review but also have a sense your evidence-informed opinion of the direction we should take going forward. Include a brief conversation on ethical considerations. Conclude with a paragraph summarising the main points you want to make and recommendations for the future. Answer: Introduction: Cardio vascular disease is spreading rapidly in all over the world. It is a life threatening disease. Cardio vascular disease refers to the class of disease that can involve problems of heart and blood vessels. According to Collaboration and S (2017), the cardio vascular disease may include the coronary artery disease. In other words, the cardio vascular disease includes the heart attack, myocardial infarction, and angina problem. González-Chica, Bowden, Musker, Hay, and Stocks (2017) argued that cardio vascular disease involves the heart failure, rheumatic heart disease, heart arrhythmia, hypertensive heart disease, congenital heart disease, aortic aneurysms, venous thrombosis, peripheral artery disease, and vulvular heart disease. The cause of the cardio vascular disease may be the high blood pressure, lack of exercise, unhealthy diet, obesity, smoking, alcohol intake, diabetes, high blood cholesterol, and genetic problem. Across the world, 17.7 million people are attacked by CVD and face death due to it (O’Neil, et al., 2013). In 2015, the death rate was 31%. In Australia, cardio vascular disease is a major disease, which causes death. In 2015, approximately 45,392 people were died due to the CVD (O’Rourke, 2016). In every twelve minutes, one person dies from the cardio vascular disease in Australia. Atherosclerosis can occur due to the peripheral artery disease, coronary artery disease, and stroke. 13% of death due to CVD occurs for the reason of high blood pressure, 6% for diabetes, 9% for the tobacco smoking, 5% for obesity, 6% for the lack of exercise and poor diet. However, in some cases the cardio vascular disease is preventable if the people follow a healthy lifestyle. The rate of death is increased from the previous time. In 1990, the rate of death was 25.8% that is 12.3 million. This has increased in 2015 to 32.1% that is 17.9 million (Waters, Trinh, Chau, Bourchier, & Moon, 2013). In the developing countries, CVD became the leading disease. Various factors cause the cardio vascular disease. Nichols, Townsend, Scarborough, andRayner (2014) mentioned that in comparison to the females, males suffer from CVD in high rate. In developed countries, around the age 80, people die due to CVD whereas in developing countries, the age group is around 68 years. However, cardio vascular disease is of different types. The other name of the cardio vascular disease is vascular disease that involves the blood vessels. The different types of cardio vascular disease involve the coronary heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, cerebrovascular disease, renal artery stenosis, and aortic aneurysm. Sometimes of CVD involves the heart directly that includes cardiac dysthymias, cardiomyopathy, endocarditis, valvular heart disease, congenital heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, and pulmonary heart disease. However, the risk factors of the cardio vascular disease includes the age, gender, physical inactivity, poor diet, excess consumption of alcohol, tobacco smoking, genetic predisposition, obesity, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, diabetes, and previous family history of CVD. Other factors that can affect the CVD are low education qualification, poverty, air pollution, psychological factors, social inclusion and exclusion criteria, and hyperlipidemia. The risk factors can differ from community to community, ethnic group, and countries. Nidorf, Eikelboom, Budgeon and Thompson (2013) stated that some types medication can also cause the problem of cardio vascular disease that can be modified by consulting with the physician. Methods: As it is a systemic method, therefore it is necessary to find out the appropriate journals, articles, and literatures for the review purpose to develop the study. The literatures will help to find out the statistical data, theoretical information about the topic. However, it is necessary to focus on the important domains to proceed with the assignment in the systematic way for collecting papers. These papers will help to solve the key concern of the assignment. The initial and important domain is to apply the appropriate key terms and selects the appropriate database. These databases will help to gather articles that match with the chosen topic. For the research, the used key terms are cardio vascular disease, risk factors, targeting group, physical inactivity, excess alcohol consumption, cardiomyopathy, pulmonary heart disease, valvular heart disease, cardiac dysthymias, rheumatic heart disease, endocarditis, congenital heart disease, effect on blood vessels, peripheral arterial disease, coronary heart disease. Other key words that are used for the search are age, gender, physical inactivity, poor diet, excess consumption of alcohol, tobacco smoking, genetic predisposition, obesity, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, diabetes, and previous family history of CVD. For the research, the used databases are Medline, Cinahl, Pub Med, Google scholars, Charles Darwin library, clinical trial, and Biomed Central. By using the key words in the mentioned databases, various results were found. However, the articles were chosen on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. the inclusion and exclusion criteria are shown in the following table: Inclusion Criteria Exclusion Criteria English language Articles, which do not contain the searched key words Full access Found only the abstract Articles containing the key words Articles, which were not found full access Qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods of analysis, secondary analysis Found in other language than English Authentic papers  with the publication details Articles, which do not have authentic publication Articles not older than 10 years that is in between 2007- 2017 Articles older than 10 years Table 1: Inclusion and exclusion criteria (Source: As created by Author) In Australia, the cardio vascular disease is the major health issue. With the increase of the work pressure, the rate of CVD is also increasing in Australia. This can affect the economy of the Australia as well. For the study, the social determinant framework is used, which helped to make the themes on the risk factors of cardio vascular disease. The risk factors of the Cardio vascular disease are as follows: Clinical Risk Factors: In between 2014 to 2015, approximately 6 million of people around 34% people aged between 18- 60 years had suffered from cardio vascular disease. Out of 10 people in Australia, 9 adults suffer from the cardio vascular disease due to the physical inactivity, smoking, lack of vegetables and fruits intake, alcohol consumption (Hare, Toukhsati, Johansson, & Jaarsma, 2014). The unhealthy lifestyle including the lack of physical exercise, lack of healthy diet and skipping meals lead towards the overweight, obesity, and diabetes, which further develops the risks of car5dio vascular disease. In 2011 to 2012, 5.6 million adults suffered from high cholesterol. Lifestyle Risk Factors: According to Woodruffe, et al. (2015), in 2011 to 2012, smoking became the main reason of the CVD. In Australia, out of 7 adults, 1 starts smoking at the age of 15 and became habituated to it. In 2014 to 2015, out of three adults, two had obesity. The rate of the obesity was 63%. The number of the adults the age group of 18 years, 36% were overweight and 27.5 % were obese. In Australia, cardio vascular disease is a major disease, which causes death. In 2015, approximately 45,392 people were died due to the CVD. The old age people are at the high risk of cardio vascular disease  (Holmes, et al., 2014). Therefore, it is necessary to modify the lifestyle pattern to reduce the risks of the cardio vascular disease (Refer to Appendix). The cardio vascular disease is preventable. Proper education is necessary for the prevention of the cardio vascular disease. People need to know about the healthy dieting that is influenced by the age, gender, physical condition, and BMI. People need to avoid the bad practice of the tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. They need to avoid the junk foods as well as processed foods. People need to practice exercise at least for 30 minutes in a week that will help to increase the metabolic rate and help to maintain the healthy lifestyle (Collaboration & S, 2017). People need to take properly balanced food, which is rich in protein, carbohydrate, fat, minerals, and vitamin. People should not skip their meals and intake at least four meals in a day that will help to reduce the risk factors of the cardio vascular disease.   Conclusion: From the above result, it is seen that cardio vascular disease preventable when people will be aware about their lifestyle. To make people aware, appropriate education is necessary. The appropriate education includes the health promotion programs and campaigns. Most of the people are aware about the risk factors of the cardio vascular disease but do not know the ways to prevent the risk factors. In such cases, the health care programs and campaigns in aboriginal areas, schools, colleges, hospitals and multinational companies can help to reduce the death rate due to cardio vascular disease. Parents need to be aware about the behavior of their children. Most of the teenage get attracted towards the smoking and alcohol consumption in the adolescence period, which needs to be stopped to reduce the risk factors (Holmes, et al., 2014). People who get affected by the cardio vascular disease need to have appropriate dietary habit. For a research study, it is necessary to maintain the ethical guidelines of the research. The researchers should follow the ethical guidelines to avoid the ethical guidelines. In case of ethical consideration, it is necessary to get the approval from a certified research committee. However, it is necessary to demonstrate the purpose of the research and take the consent of the participants. Hence, the researcher needs to maintain the ethical norms. These ethical norms promote the aim and objective of the research study. Selection of the particular sample size is necessary. The participants need to give their consent to participate in the research study to make it successful. The research study is a broad topic. Therefore, there is a various research gaps that provide the future researchers scope to explore the topic area. The future research can get the chance to make a strong relationship in between the research variables and can provide more statistical data to make the evidences strong. There is a scope to research about the literatures, which will provide more data and information about the research topic. The study will also help the future researcher to gain knowledge about the research topic. References Collaboration, & S, A. P. (2017). A comparison of the associations between risk factors and cardiovascular disease in Asia and Australasia. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation.  González-Chica, D. A., Bowden, J., Musker, M., Hay, P., & Stocks, N. (2017). Are we reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and improving the quality of life through preventive health care? Results of a population-based study in South Australia. Preventive Medicine, 164-170. Hare, D. L., Toukhsati, S. R., Johansson, P., & Jaarsma, T. (2014). Depression and cardiovascular disease: a clinical review. . European heart journal, 1365-1372. Holmes, M. V., Dale, C. E., Zuccolo, L., Silverwood, R. J., Guo, Y., Ye, Z., . . . Cavadino, A. (2014). Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Mendelian randomisation analysis based on individual participant data. Bmj, g4164. Nichols, M., Townsend, N., Scarborough, P., & Rayner, M. (2014). Cardiovascular disease in Europe 2014: epidemiological update. . European heart journal,, ehu299. Nidorf, S. M., Eikelboom, J. W., Budgeon, C. A., & Thompson, P. L. (2013). Low-dose colchicine for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. . Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 404-410. O’Neil, A., Stevenson, C. E., Williams, E. D., Mortimer, D., Oldenburg, B., & Sanderson, K. (2013). The health-related quality of life burden of co-morbid cardiovascular disease and major depressive disorder in Australia: findings from a population-based, cross-sectional study. Quality of life research, 37-44. O’Rourke, M. F. (2016). Transfer function-derived central pressure and cardiovascular disease events: the Framingham Heart Study. . Journal of Hypertension, 2487-2489. Waters, A. M., Trinh, L., Chau, T., Bourchier, M., & Moon, L. (2013). Latest statistics on cardiovascular disease in Australia. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 347-356. Woodruffe, S., Neubeck, L., Clark, R. A., Gray, K., Ferry, C., Finan, J., . . . Briffa, T. G. (2015). Australian Cardiovascular Health and Rehabilitation Association (ACRA) core components of cardiovascular disease secondary prevention and cardiac rehabilitation 2014. . Heart, Lung and Circulation, 430-441.

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