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HXH5003 Infection Prevention And Control

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HXH5003 Infection Prevention And Control Questions: 1) Name the two genera of spore forming bacteria and explain why their presence in a hospital environment is seen as being dangerous. 2)Describe three ways in which disease may be transferred? 3) what is meant by the term ” danger zone” when considering food safety? 4)How could you prevent food poisoning? 5) how does disinfection differ from sterilisation? 6) what is antibiotics? Answers: Two genera of spore forming bacteria Clostridium and Bacillus are the two genera of bacteria. Bacillus consists of aerobic bacteria that are responsible for some severe diseases such as anthrax. Clostridium comprises of bottle-shaped or pin-shaped bacteria that cause food infection. The presence of Bacillus and Clostridium in hospitals results in hospital-acquired infections. A hospital-acquired infection is different of the primary disease that brings a patient to the hospital. The immune system of patients in the hospital might be compromised, which increase the risk of infection (Revelas, 2012). Besides, there is a possibility of illness transmission from patients to the hospital staff. Methods of disease transmission The three methods of disease transmission are vector-borne, air-borne and person-to-person. Vector-borne entails the transmission of illnesses through vectors.  A vector might be an insect that transmits a disease-causing agent from one host to another. Some of the diseases that are transmitted through a vector are trypanosomiasis, babesiosis and filariasis (Cholewinski, Derda, & Hadas, 2015). In airborne transmission, diseases are transmitted by pathogens that are suspended in the air. The pathogens get in the air through various processes such as shedding from faeces. In person-to-person transmission, diseases are transmitted through direct contact with an infected person. “Danger zone” in food safety The “danger zone” is the temperature range that supports the growth of food-borne bacteria. This temperature zone is 5 degrees (41) to 57 degrees (135) (Motarjemi & Lelieveld, 2013). Potential hazardous foods should not be kept within the temperatures defined as “danger zone” to prevent food poisoning. How I could prevent food poisoning I could prevent food poisoning by observing four protocols, cleaning, cooking, chilling and cross-contamination. The Food Standards Agency (FSA) has established regulations that should be observed to prevent food poising in commercial settings (Jones, Cross, Burton, Millman, O’Brien, & Rigby, 2017). I would maintain high personal hygiene standards as well as keep utensils clean. One of the most important things would be washing hands before preparing food and after handling raw foods. I could cook thoroughly and reheat left-over foods efficiently. Chilling foods to the right temperature would also help me to prevent food poising. Disinfection vs. sterilisation Disinfection is a method of decontamination that aims to reduce or eliminate microbes from a surface or equipment to a level that does not cause infection. On the other hand, sterilisation is a form of decontamination that aims to kill all the microbes on a surface or equipment. Antibiotics Antibiotics are kinds of antimicrobial drugs applied to treat or prevent bacterial infection. Antibiotics work by inhibiting bacteria from reproducing and spreading. However, antibiotics do not treat or prevent some viral infections like flu, common colds, influenza and sore throats. Some few antibiotics might also have antiprotozoal activity. References Cholewinski, M., Derda, M., & Hadas, E. (2015). Parasitic diseases in humans transmitted by vectors. Annals of parasitology , 61 (3), 137-157. Jones, A. K., Cross, P., Burton, M., Millman, C., O’Brien, S. J., & Rigby, D. (2017). Estimating the prevalence of food risk increasing behaviours in UK kitchens. PloS one , 12 (6), e0175816. Motarjemi, Y., & Lelieveld, H. (2013). Food safety management: a practical guide for the food industry. Academic Press. Revelas, A. (2012). Healthcare – associated infections: A public health problem. Niger Med J , 53 (2), 59-64.

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