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KIN 170 Lifestyle, Health And Wellness

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KIN 170 Lifestyle, Health And Wellness Question: Objective: To learn to search for scientific evidence related to health/medical topics.  You will need to write academic assignments relying on reputable scientific evidence to provide information, discuss topics and support your work. Your Task: 1) Think of a health/research question of interest to you. 2) Build a search strategy to find information and evidence about your question. 3) Report on the outcomes of that search strategy. 4) Access and learn from 1 published scientific study on your chosen topic. Answer: Health Research Question ‘’What is the relationship between active smoking and the risk of breast cancer in women?’’ This is a research question that is meant to determine whether there exists a relationship between active smoking and the risk of acquiring breast cancer. The research question mainly targeted the women gender (Bennicke, Conrad & Sabroe, 2015). Building The Search Strategy I visited the PubMed website at At the homepage, there is a search box where I began by typing a broad search term of the research question I want to access. For my research question, I used the following steps to help build my search strategy; Smoking AND breast cancer (3972 records) Active smoking AND breast cancer (208 records) ‘’active smoking’’ AND ‘’breast cancer’’ (67 records) ‘’active smoking’’ [ti] AND ‘’breast cancer’’ [ti] (14 records) ‘’active smoking’’ [ti] AND ‘’breast cancer’’ [ti] NOT passive smoking (5 records) ‘’active smoking’’ [ti] AND ‘’breast cancer’’ [ti] AND women OR ladies (732 records) ‘’active smoking’’ [ti] AND ‘’breast cancer’’ [ti] AND women NOT passive smoking (5 records) ‘’active smoking’’ [ti] AND ‘’breast cancer’’ [ti] AND women (11 records) During the steps followed to help build my search strategy, there were different results or records for each step. Each step did yield records in accordance to the steps followed. The quantity of records retrieved from each step were very impressive. The quality of the records retrieved from each step was recommendable and can be used to conduct a proper peer review on the intended research question (Ebbs, 2012). The Process And Possible Challenges The process to build a proper search strategy is involving and requires a lot of information on the intended research question. I began by searching a term that is broad which yields a large number of records. In the succeeding steps, the term is narrowed to ensure that the records retrieved are very similar to the intended research question. The only challenging from this strategy is that it is involving and may take a lot of time to achieve the intended results (Hrubá, 2013). Article ‘’Active Smoking and Breast Cancer Risk: Original Cohort and Meta-Analysis.’’ Referencing ‘’Gaudet, MM., Gapstur, SM., Sun J, Diver, WR., Hannah, LM., Thun, MJ. (2013). Active Smoking and Breast Cancer Risk: Original Cohort and Meta-Analysis. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 105(8), 515-525.’’ Lessons Learnt 73000 women were interviewed with an aim to determine the association between smoking and breast cancer. The incidences of breast cancer were greater in former and current smokers that it is on those who have never smoked. The women who began smoking at very tender ages registered higher risks of suffering from breast cancer. The most interesting outcome that supports the association between smoking and breast cancer is the outcome from women who began smoking before age at first birth. This is because the mammary tissue is believed to be highly susceptible to genotoxic exposures mostly when they have not completed the first full time pregnancy. This implies smoking that plays a major role in initiating breast cancer than progressing it (Reynolds, 2013). A commonly asked question is the role played by consumption of alcohol. The study realized that the consumption of alcohol is correlated with smoking and that on an average, the current smokers often drink more than those who had quit smoking and those who have never attempted. This study however did not report any statistically significant interaction between the consumption of alcohol and smoking that may increase the risk of acquiring breast cancer. References Bennicke, K., Conrad, C. G., Sabroe, S., & Sørensen, H. T. (2015). Smoking and breast cancer. Ugeskrift for laeger, 158(35), 4909-4911. Ebbs, S. (2012). Smoking and breast cancer. International journal of clinical practice, 59(9), 999-1000. Hrubá, D. (2013). Smoking and breast cancer. Klinicka onkologie: casopis Ceske a Slovenske onkologicke spolecnosti, 26(6), 389-393. Reynolds, P. (2013). Smoking and breast cancer. Journal of mammary gland biology and neoplasia, 18(1), 15-23.

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