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L500 Health And Social Care Management Question: Task 1: Identify awareness and skills for effective management and leadership in health and social care organisation A.C. 1.1 – Identify the classification of management roles within health and social care organisations A.C. 1.2 – Analyse SMART (specific, measurable, agreed, Realistic, Timed) criteria as an approach to write the organisational goals, objectives and strategies. A.C. 1.3 – Identify extent to which managers show leadership within the health or social care organisation   Task 2: How to manage team performance for the quality of service delivery in health and social care? A.C. 2.1 – Identify the need of training and development in the planning process to improve team performance. A.C. 2.2 – Develop a training plan based on training needs analysis. A.C. 2.3 – Identify effective managers’ capabilities to deal with poor performance of team member and evaluate the ways to resolve these issues A.C. 2.4 – Identify working standards to control the quality of service delivery within an organisation.   Task 3. How can you manage projects for the improvement of service delivery within the health and social care organisation? A.C 3.1 – Identify phases of planning a project in health and social care sector. A.C. 3.2 – Identify actions to monitor and the control of project during implementation phase of project A.C. 3.3 – Manage the causes of quality problems by analysing the fishbone technique. Answer: Task-1 1.1 The role of managers is different according to their titles and the work they perform in a health and social care organisation. The manager or administrator of a social and healthcare organisation has a great responsibility towards the patients, hospitals and the community. The management is responsible to understand and full fill the needs and expectations of patients by providing quality care services (Ginter, Duncan, and Swayne, 2018). To manage and handle the available resources in the hospital to maximize the output is one of the fundamental roles towards the healthcare organisation. The management of health and social care organisation is also responsible towards community because a health and social care organisation is already a community organisation because it receives inputs such as machinery, manpower, material, land, building from the community. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the hospital management to give output to the community by providing them expected health and care services. 1.2 The healthcare organisations follow the SMART concept to formulate their strategies, goals and objectives. Because the current and on-going social and economic changes are forcing healthcare organisations to a constant improvement of their services, with a specific devotion to the excellence of the care services (Britnell, 2016). SMART healthcare in a healthcare organisation means to remove medical errors, less repetitive tests, holistic care of the patient, and reduce medical cost and time. Hence, it is particularly important that these organisations develop a system and management mechanism that determines the goals and objectives of the organisation in such a way that helps in providing quality services to its patient without compromising with standards. Therefore, it is necessary for the organisation to set a SMART objective and goals for the organisation and also focus on continuous improvement in the health and social care quality services. The SMART healthcare objective also includes implementing smart equipment and information system in the hospitals that help in the better treatment of patients. 1.3 Generally, a healthcare organisation management team is comprised of Medical Director, Financial Director, Human Resource Director and Healthcare Director including a large number of medical staff and non-medical staff who contributes to daily healthcare operations. The upper-level management involves in the decision making process and planning related to finance and healthcare issues (Walshe and Smith, 2011). The Medical Director making decisions related to overall medical services in the hospital where the Finance Director take care finance related issues. Apart from them, there are numbers of lower level healthcare officers that investigate daily operation in the organisation and investigate health-related issues, solve problems and concern of patient and also guide and monitor activities of doctors and nurses. The managers are also responsible for maintaining the organisational culture within the organisation (Weeks, 2012). There are some managers that handle the information related to patient health and treatment-related information. Proper management of the information related to patient treatment is one of the major and important tasks of the organisation because it decides the quality of services in the healthcare organisation.   Task-2 2.1 Training helps in enhancing the skills of healthcare employee and specialist both to boost their knowledge, skills and confidence and thus they can deliver safe and secure healthcare quality services to the customers that meet the needs and expectations. Training of employee’s planned during the planning process because it provides time for the employees to prepare for any challenges during the training period. If healthcare employees feel more confident and positive in their skills and knowledge they will feel more positive about their works (EduCare, 2018). Those employees who received training and development from the organisation are more satisfied and happy in their works. This helps in an increase in employee retention rates, which is valuable for the entire organisation. A workforce that is well trained and confident in delivering healthcare services can be a better carer of a seriously ill patient and can treat their family as well by understanding their emotional feelings (NHS Employers, 2016). Training of employees is a part of the planning process that linked the business needs, that helps in improving the service quality and also helpful in improving the ward productivity and efficiency. A well-trained staff can also be a handful person in managing the problems related to overcrowding in the hospital. 2.2 In order to plan training for healthcare employees and staff, we first need to analyse in which are they lack and what are their strengths and weaknesses. Even if the healthcare workers and staff are well-trained and have already the required skills and qualifications, it is essential for them to upgrade and develop their knowledge and skills in the healthcare organisation (Bowie, Skinner, and Wet, 2013). To train the employees of the organisation, the employer can take several steps regarding the training plan: Talk and Convince to Staff: The first step is to talk with employees and workers who need training and convince them that it is necessary for their growth and development that also helps in providing quality healthcare services. Decide the way of training: The second step of training planning decide in which mode training will be provided to the employees. It can be the physical mode, educational model, or training through e-learning or books. Online training has many benefits, as it saves the time of both the organisation and the staff. It allows the staff to learn the topics from their own home (Duygulu, 2011). Analyse the impact of training: With the modern information system and the organisation can be assured that all staff have a proper, consistent and high-quality training that helps in the future in their work. The healthcare organisation also measures the impact of training by work observation of staffs. The organisation can also consider the management report to keep up-to-date with how trained staff and employees are doing at the workplace (Singer, Hayes, and Kiang, 2015). Although, training is an important factor that determines the overall success of the healthcare organisation. The e-learning or online source is an effective tool to provide training to the employees by focusing on the individual and allows staff to talk freely as a group about the training which also boosts the confidence in them.    2.3 Managing and monitoring the performance of the staff in healthcare is important and how well a manager manages the performance of the employees has a big impact on the quality of care services that people expect from the organisation. As a line manager in the healthcare organisation, it is the responsibility of the manager to monitor and observe the performance of the workers. The way employees are the recruit, supervise and develop in the organisation will determine their behaviour, work approach and ability to the right standard in the organisation (Britnell, 2016). It is essential for a manager to spend time, talk, guide and dealing with employees who are underperforming and therefore it is compulsory to practice performance analysis and management in the organisation (BitaArbab, Christopher, and Larry, 2014). The manager can identify the cause of the poor performance of the employee and suggest and guide them in improving their performance. If the performance is absolute bare minimum as compared to set standards, the manager can warn and give notice to the concern people. The manager can motivate their employees by communicating his/her expectations, give useful feedback, and recognise good or bad performance which is essential for encourage people for improving their poor performance (Faculty of Medical Leadership and Management, 2018). To improve the performance of employee a manager can take a few steps: Motivate the employees by support and appreciation of their work. Tell them about their value for the organisation. Talk to the employees about their outcomes and experience. The manager can talk about the problem which causes poor performance. It also helps to keep employee happier, more engaged in work, and probably lower sickness absence rates in the organisation.   2.4 Quality is a crucial factor and a major concern in the area of health and social care and leaves a positive impact on its stakeholders. Therefore, quality should be a prime objective of the healthcare organisation.  There are various factors that determine the level of quality in the services of a particular organisation but in a healthcare organisation, it mainly depends on people beliefs, thoughts, and preferences of the stakeholders that are part of the healthcare system. A poor quality in healthcare service results in a bad image in the mind of people and may also cause shut-down of the same organisation (Douglas and Judge, 2017). The quality of service in a healthcare organisation also determines the image of the organisation in the mind of people. The healthcare organisations normally follow various quality standards that people can expect from these types of organisations. The organisation follows CQC (Care Quality Commission) rules and regulations, TQM (Total Quality Management), NICE (National Institute for Clinical Excellence), AQ (Assurance Quality) and ISO 9001:2015 for measuring the quality that helps the organisation to provide quality services to its users (Ferlie and Shortell, 2011). Although the service quality standards in most of the organisation help in assess and improve the quality services. Apart from these quality standards the organisations also follow the rules and regulations issued by the WHO and UNICEF that helps in determining the quality, safe and secure care services provides to the patient of the healthcare organisation.    Task-3 3.1 Planning a project related to service delivery in a healthcare organisation concerned with change or prospect change in the organisation related to work or procedure in the organisation. People who participate in planning such as planners, service manager, or other stakeholders are playing an important role in the success of the project planning in a healthcare organisation (Hans, Houdenhoven, and Hulshof, 2011). A tough challenge in planning a project in a healthcare organisation is to ensure that planning systems are designed in such a way that provides real information to its communities and its users in the planning process. There are 6 phases consist of project planning:    Situational analysis:Situational analysis helps in analysing the current situation and feasibility of the project in the organisation that it is feasible or not to launch the project in the organisation. It also analyses the various factors related to the health of people, population type, demographic, physical and socio-economic factors that affect the projects ( Kerzner and Kerzner, 2017). Priority-setting:The priority-setting includes analysing the social and political climate and ensures that priorities that are set by the planning team is feasible or not. It also considered the status of available resources for the project. Option appraisal: This phase involves the assessment and generation of various alternative strategies for achieving the planned targets and objectives. Normally, this phase is avoided by the planning team because of high resource implications, or technical unfeasibility. Hence, the result of this stage will be a list of ideal and preferred strategies and amalgamation of approaches which helps in planning (Shirley, 2011). Project Budgeting:Project budgeting is an appraisal of past projects and resources that were used in past in order to track future resource allocation cost in the same projects and programs. In the proposed budgeting phase, marginal cost analysis helps in the appraisal of the additional benefits and costs of a proposed project plan. Implementation and monitoring:The next phase after project budgeting is project implementation and it’s monitoring of the project. The monitoring process links the implementation process with the evaluation phase (Tumerman, 2012). The monitoring process evaluates and measures the progress of the project after implementation. In project planning phase monitoring is an on-going process that investigates that the intended results are being attained in a well-structured way.   Evaluation: Evaluation is a systematic assessment of all the project planning phase in a healthcare project. The main purpose behind the evaluation phase is to determine the significance, productivity, sustainability, impact, and performance of objectives. Both monitoring and evaluation can only be effective if considered at the commencement of the planning phase so that a standard can be compared with the actual result throughout the planning phase.   3.2 Monitoring is an on-going process that helps to analyse the different phase of healthcare project. Project monitoring helps includes activity related to project analysis that analyses the planned results are being achieved or not, in timely and corrective ways. In project monitoring phase past data are collected and serve as a standard for different activities during the project implementation (Kerzner, 2008).  Then after, the actual performance is analysed on the basis of the standard sets on the basis of past data. Controlling is an ‘intrusive procedure’. Controlling includes 4 main actions during the project implementation phase. Setting standards: The project manager set standards on the basis of past project data collection. This historical data helps in setting the standard for the present or future projects. Observing performance: In controlling phase, the project manager observing the performance of the present project with the pre-set standards and measures. Compare actual performance with pre-set standards: The project manager of a healthcare project compare the performance of different activities with the previous one which was set as a standard to measure and compare the actual performance. Taking corrective measures: If project manager found any lack or deviation in the performance of the various task perform in the project, then he/she can take corrective measures to overcome the problems and ensure that project will be completed within the expected budget of the organisation without affecting the efficiency of the organisational objective. A project manager of healthcare, generally perform these tasks to monitor and control the activities during the implementation phase of a health and social care project that determines the success of the project. 3.3 A fishbone diagram is a tool that helps the project manager to analyse the cause and effect analysis for a problem that affects the progress of the project. Fishbone diagram is also known as a cause-and-effect diagram. The left side of the fishbone diagram shows the causes and the right side of the diagram shows the effect. The right side of the diagram shows the effect of the problem written as a problem statement that a project manager is identifying the causes (Kasaven, 2013).  The problem related to service delivery can be analysed on the basis of a fishbone diagram. There are several steps can be performed during fishbone analysis: Identify problem statement:This is a first step where a manager finds the problem related to service delivery and write it to the right side of the diagram. Draw major causes of the problem:In the delivery of service, a manager can identify major problems related to the plant, people, procedures, rules and policies of the project.   Brainstorm causes: This step involved analysis of causes where causes can be analysed and categorised on a priority basis. The causes can be categorised in a list. Categorize causes:If the list of causes generated then these causes can be categorized according to the priority basis. Each cause should only be placed in one category. Such as lack of training may cause a problem with the inefficient use of machinery. Identify deeper and root causes:This is the final step in the Fishbone diagram where causes can be identified as deep and root causes. Here the project manager identifies the cause root of origin. If causes can be identified at one level of management then it is not necessary to do the same in another managerial level.                                                                                                                     Source: Fishbone diagram is an effective tool to use for cause and effect analysis of a problem in home service care. It helps the manager to minimise the effect of a problem by doing the cause and effect analysis at both root and deep level. The project manager of a healthcare service can use the cause and effect analysis to find out the root causes of a problem during the homecare service delivery. References: BitaArbab, K., Christopher, J.E., and Larry, G. (2014) Success Factors for Strategic Change Initiatives: A Qualitative Study of Healthcare Administrators’ Perspectives. Journal of Healthcare Management, 59(1), pp. 65-81. Bowie, P., Skinner, J., and Wet, DC. (2013) Training health care professionals in root cause analysis: a cross-sectional study of post-training experiences, benefits and attitudes [online]. Available from: [Accessed: 18/7/2018]. Britnell, M. (2016) The six rules of good healthcare management and leadership development [online]. Available from: [Accessed: 16/07/2018]. Britnell, M. (2016) Understanding the Challenges [online]. Available from: [Accessed: 15/7/2018]. (2018) Fishbone Diagram [online].Available from: [Accessed: 19/07/2018]. Douglas, J.T., and Judge, Q.W. (2017) Total Quality Management Implementation and Competitive Advantage: The Role of Structural Control and Exploration. Academy of Management Journal, 44(1), pp. 44-46. Duygulu, S.K.G. (2011) Transformational leadership training programme for charge nurses. Journal of advanced nursing, 67(3), pp. 633-642. EduCare (2018) Health and social care: Empower your staff with Knowledge and skills [online]. Available from: [Accessed: 17/7/2018]. Faculty of Medical Leadership and Management (2018) Leadership and Leadership Development in Health Care: The Evidence Base [online]. Available from: [Accessed: 15/07/2018]. Ferlie, B.E. and Shortell, M.S. (2011) Improving the Quality of Health Care in the United Kingdom and the United States: A Framework for change. The Milbank Quarterly:  A Multidisciplinary Journal of Population Health and Health Policy, 79(2), pp. 281-315. Ginter, M.P., Duncan, J.W., and Swayne, E.L. (2018) The Strategic Management of Health Care Organizations.8th ed. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley. Hans, W.E., Houdenhoven, M., and Hulshof, J.H.P. (2011) A Framework for Healthcare Planning and Control. Handbook of Healthcare System Scheduling, 168(1), pp. 303-320. Kasaven, S. (2013) Using Fishbone Analysis to Investigate Problems. Nursing Practice Research Change Management Tools, 109(15), pp. 18-20.   Kerzner, H. (2008) Using the Project Management Maturity Model: Strategic Planning for Project Management. 2nd ed. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley.  Kerzner, H., and Kerzner, R.H. (2017) Project Management: A Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling, and Controlling. 12th ed. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley. NHS Employers (2016) Benefits of Training [online]. Available from: [Accessed: 17/7/2018]. Shirley, D. (2011) Project Management for Healthcare. 1st ed. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. Singer, S.J., Hayes, J.E., and Kiang M.V. (2015) Making time for learning-oriented leadership in multidisciplinary hospital management groups. Health care management review, 40(4), pp. 300-312. Tumerman, LM. (2012) Increasing medical team cohesion and leadership behaviours using a 360-degree evaluation process. WMJ: official publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin, 111(1), pp. 33-37. Walshe, K. and Smith, J. (2011) Healthcare Management. 2nd ed. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill. Weeks, V.R. (2012) Healthcare service management: A system perspective. Journal of Contemporary Management, 9(1), p. 382.

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