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MOD006116 Pathophysiology For Advanced Practice

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MOD006116 Pathophysiology For Advanced Practice Question: The news article should start with a comprehensive introduction/background to the subject area before discussing the current diagnosis and treatment in the UK compared with that in a named Third World country.  This text can be supplemented with relevant diagrams or text boxes to illustrate your points. A brief well-rounded conclusion should sum up the main points and highlight any key areas or unanswered questions for further investigation. Answer: Background: Tuberculosis can be defined as an infectious disease that affects the major respiratory organ, the lungs. Studies indicate that Tuberculosis has emerged out to be second major global epidemic that leads to a higher mortality rate of the world population (WHO 2018). According to the report published by the World Health Organization, (2018) it has been estimated that almost one-fourth of the total world’s population is infected with Tuberculosis. The year 2017 witnessed 1.3 million deaths caused by Tuberculosis worldwide (WHO 2018). Also, the report published by the WHO indicated that almost 3 million TB cases remain unrecognized by the healthcare organizations (WHO 2018). Researchers have further estimated that Tuberculosis majorly affects women who belong to the age group between 15-44 ( 2018). The predominant symptoms of TB include, pertinent coughing. High temperature, night sweats, sudden weight loss and fatigue ( 2018). The disease is caused by an airborne pathogenic bacteria which is known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( 2018). Physicians have classified Tuberculosis under two categories that include, Latent TB and Active TB. In case of Latent TB, the bacteria remains inactive inside the body and causes no infection. However, the bacteria might assume an active form at any instant and can cause infection (Getahun et al. 2015).  In case of Active TB, the bacteria causes external symptoms and has the potential to cause an infection within a normal person through transmission (Galagan et al. 2013). It has been estimated that one-third of the total world population suffers from latent TB and have compromised immune systems (Galagan et al. 2013). The condition is common in people who are HIV positive, smokers and are malnourished.                                                                                                                                                 Source: ( 2018)                                                                                                                                            Source: (WHO 2018) On the other hand, the National Institute for Health and Care excellence, UK, recommends mandatory TB screening of patients who are at a high risk of developing the disorder. The screening sis sufficiently equipped to distinguish between the latent and the active form of TB. In addition to this, the UK government observes stringent measures to promote awareness about the disease and has stringent policies to prevent the transmission of infection from external sources ( 2018). For instance, the government has made the pre-entry TB screening for migrants a compulsory criterion for individuals who wish to gain entry to UK. On the other hand, screening test and anti-TB drugs are yet to be assimilated into the healthcare organizations of Somalia.                                                                                                                            Source: ( 2018).                                                                                                      Source: ( 2018). Conclusion: Research studies have predicted that the disease is more prevalent in the younger population of the developing countries. It is critical to note in this context, that the disparity in the prevalence ratio is primarily on account of the advancement in the detection and treatment methods of the disorder. According to the statistical evidences, it has been mentioned TB in Somalia is extremely common and has an incidence rate of 290 per 10,000 people (WHO 2018). The lack of education and awareness about the disease and its causes in combination with the lack of proper medical health infrastructure to treat the condition has caused TB to emerge out a disease burden. Also, the lack of trained healthcare professionals assist patients with the conditio Therefore to conclude, it should be mentioned that the plight of Somalia is gradually reducing with the compliance of the anti-TB campaign launched by the WHO. National guidelines have been established for improving the quality of treatment rendered to the patients. Also, the program has focused on creating awareness and included short courses for imparting training to the healthcare professionals. References: 2018. WHO EMRO | Tuberculosis | Programmes | Somalia. [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 Dec. 2018]. Galagan, J.E., Minch, K., Peterson, M., Lyubetskaya, A., Azizi, E., Sweet, L., Gomes, A., Rustad, T., Dolganov, G., Glotova, I. and Abeel, T., 2013. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis regulatory network and hypoxia. Nature, 499(7457), p.178. Getahun, H., Matteelli, A., Chaisson, R.E. and Raviglione, M., 2015. Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. New England Journal of Medicine, 372(22), pp.2127-2135. 2018. Tuberculosis (TB). [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 Dec. 2018]. World Health Organization 2018. Global tuberculosis report. [online] World Health Organization. Available at: [Accessed 8 Dec. 2018].

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