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NUR3101 Primary Health Care In A Global Context

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NUR3101 Primary Health Care In A Global Context Question: In this assignment, identify and evaluate one of Australia’s current key strategies in Primary Health Care policies that are directed towards a public health issue, including discussion of the following concepts within Primary Health Care:  Determinants of health such as equity and social justice (education, wealth, access) Epidemiological factors associated with your chosen primary health care  In your evaluation of each concept, discuss your evaluations with reflection on the WHO five key principles of Primary Health Care. Include in your evaluation the significance to Nursing Practice, relative to roles and responsibilities.  Related Course Objectives: 1. Identify, evaluate and apply the philosophy and principles of primary health care as outlined by the World Health Organisation, as a fundamental approach to holistic nursing care. 2. Demonstrate an understanding of how determinants of health such as equity and social justice and the epidemiology of health and disease across different population groups. 3. Critically analyse the significance to nursing practice of (i) the social determinants of health (ii) the health impacts of climate change and environmental degradation; (iii) availability, accessibility, acceptability, affordability and cultural appropriateness of health service provision.  Answer: Introduction The purpose of primary health care composition in Australia is to establish a new way of providing quality care to everyone (Standing Council of Health, 2013). The Australian Health care system has four significant strategic outcomes for primary health care. Firstly, health care providers must focus on the needs of the patients. The third strategic plan requires caregivers to manage the social determinants of health. This essay will discuss the third decisive outcome of primary health care in Australia. It will also explore determinants of health and relate the strategy to five fundamental principles of primary care. The Third Australian Strategy for Primary Health Care: Tackling Social Determinants of Health Solving the social determinants of health should concentrate on early intervention, screening, prevention, and health promotion. The Australian government should devise ways of addressing the barriers to quality care. The social determinants include geographical location, housing, health literacy, and social status (Standing Council of Health, 2013). Additional determinants are employment and levels of education. The mentioned determinants lead to undesirable outcomes of health. The government should construct proper road infrastructure to facilitate easy access to health facilities. Suitable housing, fresh food, and clean water are crucial in maintaining proper health. The government should address the determinants to ensure quality care for all Australians. The partnership between Australia and commonwealth should target lifestyle-related issues like smoking, alcoholism, physical inactivity, unsafe sex, and poor nutrition. Addressing the mentioned health issues prevent the onset of diseases like the alcoholic liver disease that occurs due to alcoholism. The government should also partner with health organizations to develop best-practice remedies for lifestyle habits (Perkins, 2013). Additionally, proper health promotion strategies can train the population on leading a healthy lifestyle free from complications. Commonwealth and Australia should research the appropriate technological advancement in health care. The health department should facilitate home-based diagnosis and treatment of various ailments (Perkins, 2013). Improved technology enables caregivers to conduct efficient screening and treatment for complications. The use of technology in primary health care enables health specialists to monitor the lifestyle of Australian citizens. Additionally, caregivers can evaluate the risk factors and treat individuals with chronic complications. Care providers can use social media to check on the progress of a patient after treatment. Significance of Tackling Social Determinants to Nursing Roles and Responsibilities Nurses should understand the need of tackling social determinants of health during care. Nurses should provide quality medical attention regardless of the patient’s economic status. Nurses should also be open to visit remote areas and attend to the indigenous communities. Caregivers should carry out awareness campaigns to curb lifestyle-related complications like alcoholism. Social Determinants of Health Equity Equity involves the equal distribution of resources across a given country regardless of race, ethnicity, or beliefs of a section of the population (Smith, 2014). A part of Aboriginals and Torres Islanders have complained of unequal distribution of medical facilities in their hospitals. Therefore, the government should ensure even allocation of resources to benefit all Australian citizens. Education An educated individual can interpret the symptoms of a complication and seek proper medical attention (Badland et al., 2014). Additionally, adequate education open doors for employment opportunities; hence, enabling an individual to afford the costs of medication. Therefore, the Australian government should ensure that all citizens obtain a quality education. Wealth Wealth refers to the financial capability of an individual. Wealthy individuals can afford costly health care while poor people cannot pay for medication (Rothenberg et al., 2015). The Australian government should introduce incentives to make healthcare affordable to every citizen. Access Accessing health facilities can be difficult due to poor infrastructure linking urban centers to rural areas (Rothenberg et al., 2015). The government should construct proper road networks to connect rural inhabitants to hospitals. Additionally, the health department should build hospitals in rural areas. Epidemiological Factors Associated with Tackling Social Determinants of Health The factors include poor education, poverty, inequity, and poor access(Fisher, Baum, MacDougall, Newman, & McDermott, 2016). Poor education makes a population ignorant about the available interventions for a given complication. Poverty limits the ability of people to afford the costs of medication. Inequality leads to uneven distribution of health facilities along ethnic lines. Poor access prevents people from reaching health facilities to seek care. The relationship between the Five Principles of Primary Health care and Social Determinants The first principle requires the health department to ensure that health care is equitably distributed (WHO, 2015). Equity is one of the social determinants of health enshrined in the strategic plans of primary health care. Therefore, all Australians should access quality care regardless of their social class, age, or gender. The second principle calls for community participation before launching the primary health care. Community participation is integral as it involves all Australians regardless of their ethnicity or race (WHO, 2015). Involving the indigenous community in formulating healthcare systems is a way of tackling inequity in Australia. Thirdly, WHO requires the Australian government to improve its health workforce through appropriate training (Valentijn, Schepman, Opheij, & Bruijnzeels, 2013). The various complications need caregivers to attain relevant skills of providing quality care. After practice, the health department should equally distribute health specialists to all corners of Australia for equity purposes. Fourthly, caregivers should use appropriate technology to attend to patients (WHO, 2015). The technological means of treatment should be affordable and accessible to all Australians; thereby, tackling the social determinants. The methods of treatment should also align with the cultural beliefs of the indigenous population. Fifthly, the implementation of primary health care requires a multi-disciplinary approach. Sectors like education, agriculture, and communication are necessary bedrocks for the smooth operation of the system of care (Valentijn et al., 2013). Every Australian deserves proper education to understand the principles, roles, strengths, goals, and application of primary health care. Conclusion One of the strategic plans for implementing primary health care in Australia is solving the social determinants of health. The determinants include equity, education, wealth, and access. All Australians should access quality care regardless of their ethnicity, race, and geographical location. Epidemiological factors like improper education, poor access, and inequity prevent individuals from obtaining quality care. The five principles of primary health care are in line with the strategies for primary health care implementation. The principles include equity in health care distribution, development of the health workforce, and application of relevant technology. The other two principles are community participation and a multi-disciplinary approach. References Badland, H., Whitzman, C., Lowe, M., Davern, M., Aye, L., Butterworth, I., … & Giles-Corti, B. (2014). Urban liveability: emerging lessons from Australia for exploring the potential for indicators to measure the social determinants of health. Social science & medicine, 111, 64-73. Fisher, M., Baum, F. E., MacDougall, C., Newman, L., & McDermott, D. (2016). To what extent do Australian health policy documents address social determinants of health and health equity?. Journal of Social Policy, 45(3), 545-564. Perkins, D. (2013). A Primary Health Care Strategic Framework. Australian Journal of Rural Health, 21(4), 195-196. Rothenberg, R., Stauber, C., Weaver, S., Dai, D., Prasad, A., & Kano, M. (2015). Urban health indicators and indices—current status. BMC Public Health, 15(1), 494. Smith, J. A. (2014). Reflections on the framing of ‘health equity’in the National Primary Health Care Strategic Framework: a cause for celebration or concern?. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 25(1), 42-45. Standing Council on Health. (2013). National primary health care strategic framework. Retrieved from: › Home › For Consumers › Primary Care Valentijn, P. P., Schepman, S. M., Opheij, W., & Bruijnzeels, M. A. (2013). Understanding integrated care: a comprehensive conceptual framework based on the integrative functions of primary care. International journal of integrated care, 13. World Health Organization. (2015). WHO global strategy on people-centered and integrated health services: interim report. Retrieved from:

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