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NUST08011 Nursing Care And Decision Making

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NUST08011 Nursing Care And Decision Making Question: This work should be a research proposal Structure about Does Prozac have a great effect as anti-depressant in injured Athlete? A Randomized Control Trial. Statistical significance.Test hypotheses question is important. Answer: Effects Of Does Prozac As Anti-Depressant In Injured Athletes Background Antidepressant as a class of medical drug is majorly used in the management of anxiety and depressive disorders. Nevertheless, this class of drugs is also used in the management of impulse control disorders, eating disorders, aggression, sexually dysfunctional, as well as some personality disorders3, 29. Does Prozac also known as fluoxetine is one of the most successful medical drugs since its introduction in 1987 (14). The drug is intended to increase the supply of serotonin in the brain which is a neurotransmitter through blocking its reuptake. Notably, the relatively high rate of injuries suffered by the athletes has increased over the period of the last few decades (22). It is important to note that this has precisely been ascribed to the hectic schedules of the current athletes and sportspersons in comparison to their counterparts of former times. Fluoxetine or Does Prozac as an antidepressant has been used to help these athletes recover from depression, anxiety as well as brain injuries (16). In this research Does Prozac helps to treat brain injuries among the athletes, and the study is intended to outline some of the impacts of the drug (23). More scientific evidence shows that psychosocial risks (PSR), such as high psychological demands, low decision-making flexibility, weak social support and an imbalance between efforts and recognition received at work, contribute to the development of problems such as the psychological health, musculoskeletal disorders as well as cardiovascular diseases (24). These health problems are among the leading causes of absence from work due to illness. The literature on preventive interventions in psychological health mainly concerns interventions aimed at modifying specific individual characteristics (for example the lifestyle of workers) rather than organizational traits (for example the conditions and organization of work). Notably, organizational interventions are complex and involve multiple activities simultaneously affecting numerous psychosocial risks (4). Moreover, it also observed that sports injuries would result in the occurrence of a high potential stressful environment to the sportsmen due to the various situations such as feeling pain in the area of damage (13). The pain is known to trigger adverse emotional reactions like irritability, depression and anger; general comfortableness; perception of lacking about situation control; the need of surgical intervention and hospitalization; permanent disability and chronic deterioration.          Although several studies show the relevance of these interventions to improve psychological health at work, very few have attempted to understand the factors facilitating or hindering the implementation of such interventions (19). Besides, managers play a vital role in the implementation of preventive interventions in the workplace. In this context, the general objective of this study is to identify the conditions facilitating or limiting the appropriation of preventive approaches in occupational, psychological health by managers (11) (25). Provide managers with psychosocial risk management tools (for example, guides, examples of good practice) to support the mental health process in their organization. The increase in participation in sport, whether for competition, for recreation and leisure, has been accompanied by a concomitant rise in lesions. The physical causes of the injuries are numerous; however, undoubtedly the psychological factors have a considerable weight in this aspect, as well as in the recovery of an already contracted lesion (30). Sports injuries always have physical and emotional implications for the athlete.  In accordance with previous literary sources, the physiotherapy interventions have been regarded to be one of the best measures to resolve physical issues such as sports injury. In addition to this, some of the renowned scholars even claimed that use of antidepressants has been fruitful for treating the injuries due to sports however its full implications are regarded to be a matter of consideration. Problem Statement The sports injury is a significant factor that impacts on the personality of the sportsman (male or female) (9). An injury is a physical and psychological challenge that the athlete will have to overcome. Thus, psychology applied to sports injuries aims to limit suffering associated with an injury to the athlete and ensure proper conditions for him to return to competition (5). The psychological intervention in sports injuries has a social character, due to two reasons: the epidemiological importance of sports injuries at a social level, and the concomitance of factors in the etiology of these lesions (8). In this type of psychological intervention, we need to distinguish between the elements conducive to the need for intervention and the reasons justify it. Furthermore, the determination of the roles played by anti-depressants in treating injured athletes is also a crucial matter for consideration in this aspect. Aim And Objectives The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of Does Prozac on injured athletes. It compares treatment group and placebo group to obtain the significance of the drug. The paper critically examines how antidepressants (Does Prozac) can impact the treatment of an injured athlete. The principal objective of this study is to understand and comprehend the extent to which Does Prozac aids athletes deal positively with injuries, decrease recovery time, and shun a recurrence of a similar injury. The study conducts an intervention between the placebo group and the treatment group to establish the effects of the drug. The study is proposed after realizing that patients with brain injuries more often become better after being prescribed for an antidepressant. Hypothesis After the completion of the research, the researchers would determine whether patients with brain injuries and always get Does Prozac prescription do unexpectedly better compared to their counterparts who do not take such medication (21). The placebo group would test the medical therapy of the drug while the treatment would disclose the drug’s effects on patients. Additionally, the study would determine whether or not the Does Prozac ease depression by improving the memory of the patients. The study would also help in determining and stating if the drug has some side effects on the patients. In the same vein, the research is expected to tell whether depression is a byproduct of unfortunate or sudden changes in circumstances which the athletes find themselves or whether depressions are the direct consequences of the damage of the brain. Research Plan First, the research would involve the physical examination of athletes who have previously suffered from depression and brain injuries (1). This would include a sampling of the patients to obtain relevant information in regard the benefits or adverse effects of Does Prozac. Secondly, the study would involve the interviewing of medical officers on their experience with the drug especially in treating injuries(12). This would include visiting medical doctors in different health facilities to obtain data. Thirdly, the research would encompass conducting different assessments and write a hypothesis in regards to the evaluations to determine the relevant effects of the drug. The assessment is expected to take two weeks to get reliable information from it. Notably, the other interviews are approximated to take one and half months. The experiment is scheduled to be examined by different practitioners to come up with a clear hypothesis answers. Lastly, the research team is scheduled to tire and write the report in regards to the research conducted on the role of Antidepressant on athlete injuries. The study is anticipated to cover three months. Study Design The research would be both experimental and non-experimental, consisting of a prospective, correlational, and cross-sectional design. Methodology Participants The research participants would include 3 clinicians, 50 undergraduate practitioners (28 male and 22 female) many who receive extra credit in the university course, and two professional practitioners. As such the mean university grade point average would be 4.17. Potential would be exclude if any is taking special medication, menstruating, or has no clue on the role of antidepressant. Sample The sample would be collected using the convenient method and would encompass athletes who had experienced injuries and doctors who prescribe the drugs for patients suffering from depression and anxiety disorders. The sample (N) is expected to involve not more than 150 people. Data Collection Self-reported questionnaires comprising of measurements obtained from the integrated frameworks would be returned before any injured athlete leaves the hospital. A research assistant would be available to help completion of the questionnaires. Experiments would also be conducted by the placebo group on the effects of the drug. Study Variables Explanatory variable The resources for symptoms interpretation would be measured through the assessment of anxiety and depression characteristics. Depression would also be measured using the Nor beck’s depression questionnaire. The score would be calculated by summing up the addition of every question. The demographic characteristics would be collected from medical records and would include status, age, the type of race one participate in and the duration since one starting taking part in athletics. Data Analysis Analyses would be conducted by using the 14.0 version of the SPSS for windows. A randomized controlled trial would be used to test the hypotheses. The randomized controlled trial would test the null hypothesis (HO) and the alternative hypothesis (H1). The H1 interpretation will be a scientific hypothesis which data will be collected to establish. To accomplish whether (H1) is correct, the study would begin testing from (HO). The research inference of accepting the alternative hypothesis and rejecting the null hypothesis will depend on an error of a=0.05. The statistical power would be (1-?, 80%) (20). Notably, a sample of not more than 150 would be used, and the power for the assessment of closer fit is expected to have an estimation of 1 to signify a high power. In designing as well as analyzing the clinical trial, two primary issues associated with patients’ heterogeneity have to be taken into account including the effect of bias and the effect of chance. It is important to note that these two primary issues would be addressed through enrolling an adequate number of patients in the research and utilizing the randomization for the treatment assignment. The ‘intention to treat’ evaluation of data outcome will include all persons randomized and accounted in their specific groups. Factorial designs will also be relevant since they can result in efficiencies through addressing more than a single comparison intervention in a single trial31. The study would employ observation recording forms, FGD figure guides, and questionnaires, medical reports in gathering or collecting data. The research will have to draw a graph to illustrate the findings. Reliability And Validity    The reliability and validity of the study would be ensured through the engagement of highly professional doctors and clinicians20. The analyzing and verification of the results would also involve expert clinicians. The review will on the relay on previous researchers in coming up with substantive results. Ethical Considerations The study would only involve medical doctors, patients who have suffered from brain injuries and depression, particularly, athletes. The research would take into account the dignity and integrity of the respondents and will avoid leading questions (19). Patients in the clinics would be invited to face-to-face participate in the research and would be informed of the aim or objective of the study. In the same token, an approved written consent would be obtained from the ethics institution. Follow-Up The injured athletes would have to be followed even after departing from the healthcare facility to obtain more information from them regarding the drug on their immune system. This will help in the completion of the study and make it more reliable and valid. In other words, this will increase the reliability and validity of the research. Data Management And Statistical Analysis The data would be managed through a computerized system. Additionally, the verification of the data is proposed to be done by professional medical practitioners2. Some methods of statistical analysis include SPSS version 14.032. The sample size is proposed to be between100-150 since few people take part in professional athletics. Moreover, the mean values of the data obtained in case of both the placebo and treatment groups  can be used to generate  standard deviation, which would help to determine how much the values of the treated group spread out from the mean or expected vales. A low standard deviation if obtained would indicate that the values obtained in case of both the placebo and treatment groups are highly significant as it remains close to the expected value, however, if large value is obtained for the standard deviation, then it could result in questioning of the significance of the data. Moreover, a high standard deviation would indicate the presence of some experimental errors resulting in variable values in the same data set. A sample standard deviation will be appropriate for this experiment. A statistical power of (1-?, 80%) is intended for the reliability of the data. The data will also be analyzed by professional and experienced doctors and clinicians. Quality Assurance The quality control and quality assurance system include, DSMS (11), GCP, data management, and follow up with clinical monitors. Expected Outcome The study is expected to show that the many patients who suffer from traumatic brain injury experience depression. Previous results by various groups indicate that Does Prozac assists in generating new cells of the brain and keep the new cells healthy. With the accomplishment of this study, it would be verified that proper medications such as anti-depressants play an essential role in the prevention or cure of sports injuries in athletes, especially those who are not well physically conditioned, who engage in sports without of the area (6). One of the greatest challenges of a physiotherapist who works in this area is to help in the determination of the main anti-depressants which can help in the mitigation of the problems faced by people such as the injured athletes (17). A proper work ethic and allocation of medication in this regard can assist in minimizing the risk of injury and contributing to the strengthening of the athlete in the long run. The purpose is obtaining information on the subject, analyzing systematically regarding the verification of opinions on the method mentioned and similar to the type of treatment. Where information related to the topic would be collected, from the most critical points were analyzed, so that they would carefully describe in this research presentation (10). From the year 2005, the reports suggest that the most frequent injury in sports athletes is bruising (thrashing, with 33.71%), a result of direct trauma on the player’s body, followed by the injury muscular (stretching, muscle rupture, 21.72%) and sprain. The most frequent location of the lesions is in the lower limbs, especially the knee (24.30%), followed by the thigh (21.71%) and the ankle (12.20%). The factors that trigger injury in sports are associated with the type of training, the conditioning of the athletes and other forms of factors isolated (psychological state and contact fractures).   Expected Impact In one of the study, it is found that a high occurrence of knee sprains, both professional and amateur, with 32% in players and 22% in the players. The excess of games and training places the athlete in the limit of occurrence of injuries muscular and osteon-articular. In some situations, in the face of injuries to professional athletes, physicians and physiotherapists must have exemplary behavior (especially in the determination of the main anti-depressants to be provided). This is so because, in sports, they can be under immense pressure for enabling the player to return earlier. According to few studies, regarding the frequency of injuries in the Incidents of injuries occurred in soccer sports (36.8%), rugby (26.6%) and Cricket (20%). The attackers in soccer present in greater number with lesions, followed by the defenders and sides, and if related to the fact that the attackers and defenders power, and physical strength, these values are easy because they are consequently the most prone to injury. Problems Anticipated The project team anticipates limited access to funds to reach as many hospitals as people to conduct the research. There may be also some individuals who may not want to respond to the research questions. Lay Summary There is a strong connection between athletics and the development of depression resulting from brain trauma.  One of the most extensive researches on the subject shows that a 100 out of 120 players who died, suffered from chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy can be linked to decline in memory, mood  and executive function, particularly in the case of players because they are more prone to concussions. Antidepressants have played an important role in helping the players cope with the pain and problems resulting from their frequent injuries, which in turn may prevent the development of Chronic Traumatic Encepalopathy in the future (26, 28). References  Andrews PW, Bharwani A, Lee KR, Fox M, Thomson JA. 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Applied nonparametric statistical methods. CRC Press; 2016 Apr 19. Tator, C.H., Concussions and their consequences: current diagnosis, management and prevention. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 185(11), 2013. pp.975-979. Wierike, S.C.M., Sluis, A., Akker?Scheek, I., Elferink?Gemser, M.T. and Visscher, C.,. Psychosocial factors influencing the recovery of athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injury: a systematic review. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 23(5), 2013, pp.527-540. Wilson S, Chaloner N, Osborn M, Gauntlett-Gilbert J. Psychologically informed physiotherapy for chronic pain: patient experiences of treatment and therapeutic process. Physiotherapy. 2017 Mar 31;103(1):98-105. Zeng, X., Zhang, Y., Kwong, J.S., Zhang, C., Li, S., Sun, F., Niu, Y. and Du, L., 2015. The methodological quality assessment tools for preclinical and clinical studies, systematic review and meta?analysis, and clinical practice guideline: Asystematic review. 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