All your Writing needs covered

PAR301 Maternal And Child Health

Calculate the price
your order:

275 words
Approximate price
$ 0.00

PAR301 Maternal And Child Health Question: Topic is socio-economic, medical,public health and nutritional factors have played important roles in the improvement of infant and child survival in developing countries. Answer: Introduction Every child and infant have the right to survival, development and growth as acknowledged in the United Nation Convention on the Rights of the child (UNCRC). Every infant and child has the inherent right to life, and every state should ensure that the maximum survival and development chances of a child are met. Realizing the right to child development and survival will help the government in extending and ensuring that there is access to health care services to most impoverished children at low cost.  It will also ensure there is an increase in the uptake and awareness of behaviors and services among deprived and vulnerable populations and also assist in dealing with underlying factors that reduce survival chances of an infant and child. Factors that minimize the survival chances of infants and children include; poor nutrition and lack of access to sanitation and safe water. Socio-Economic Factors Improvement in the socio-economic factors in the developing countries has played an essential role in increasing child survival. The distribution of social benefits and economic conditions is closely linked to the survival chances of children and infants (Bornstein and Bradley, 2014). Socio-economic factors that influence child survival include; mother’s education, promotion of monogamy, maternal autonomy, mother’s occupation, maternal age at birth, and place of residence. Mother’s Education In developing countries, women are continually being empowered through education. Most of the educated mothers will naturally make better use of modern health facilities, for both curative and preventive purposes hence increasing the rate of child and infant survival. Also, educated mothers are more likely to seek better antenatal care (Khanal et al, 2014). Promotion Of Monogamy Many of the developing countries are encouraging monogamous marriage. Monogamy helps in improving the child survival because there is no rivalry from co-wives and no neglect from the husband. A husband married to only one wife will be responsible during early child care and pregnancy. Studies that have been carried shows that children born in polygamous families are more likely to experience death early due to shared responsibilities and resources among the several wives (Patel et al, 2015). Maternal Autonomy In many developing countries the level of mothers financial autonomous is significantly contributing to child and infant survival.  Maternal autonomy encourages health-seeking behaviours in case of a sick child hence desirable outcome on the survival chances of a child. Mothers who also have freedom in decision making regarding their child are less likely to experience under five death. Also, children born to mothers who are financially stable are less likely to experience early death since mothers are able to cater for the child health needs. Mother’s Occupation In developing countries, most women are being educated and empowered. It promotes the ability of the women to get employed. The risk of infant and child death is lower in working mothers than in non-employed mothers (Koblinsky, Campbell and Harlow, 2018). A lower level of infant and child death may be because employed mothers are more likely and aware of care and immunization during pregnancy and have funds to cater for their children in case of any illness hence increasing the chances of child survival. Maternal Age At Birth In most developing countries some programs educate mothers on the importance of getting children at the right age. Children born to young mother are less likely to experience early death than those born to old mothers. It may be due decrease in biological complications and reduction in babies born underweight. Also, infants born to mothers under the age of 20 are more likely to die at an early age because of pregnancy complications, physical immaturity, poor nutritional status and inadequate child nurturing experience among young mothers (Rutstein and Winter, 2014) Place Of Residence It is evident that many people in developing countries are increasingly moving to urban areas. Studies carried out have shown that infants and child born in rural areas are more likely to die at an early age compared to those born in urban areas. The considerable increase in the chances of survival may be due to increased access to health care services, adequate basic sanitation, improved transport and education services and the availability of safe water supply. Medical Factors An argument in the developing countries is that there is a great contribution of curative and preventive medical care in increasing child and infant survival. Preventive care that includes vaccination programs has significantly contributed to chances of infant and child survival. Also, access to and availability of health care facilities has reduced child and infant mortality (Stenberg et al, 2014). Medical factors that affect child and infant survival chances include; quality of medical care, attitude towards modern and traditional medicine, affordability of medical care cost, the acceptability of Community health workers, and reducing the impact of HIV/AIDS. Quality Of Medical Care Increasing the availability of medical care and related child programs is a crucial factor to enhance infant and child survival. Quality of medical care is mainly influenced by the availability of the required drugs, thermometers and immunizing young children.  Many of developing countries are putting in place measures to ensure there is an adequate supply of necessary medications. Also, the availability of qualified medical personnel is another factor that contributes to enhancing quality medical care.  Availability of skilled health workers involves equipping and training them to provide quality child, maternal and newborn healthcare. Training and equipping health workers increases their capability of delivering neonatal care and obstetric care in women who have complications.   Availability of quality medical care and qualified medical personnel assists in infant and child survival because since children are more prone to diseases like malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea, in case of such disease’s occurrence, they will get adequate medical care hence improving their survival chances (Raju et al, 2014). Attitude Towards Modern And Traditional Medicine To increase the survival rates of infants and children governments of many developing countries are increasingly creating awareness on the importance of modern medicine. It ensures that families search for medical care. So many national governments are working in collaboration with community health committee and local leaders to address cultural, traditional, and social barriers to health (Bhutta and Black, 2013). Highlighting the health as a right to every child even in developing villages has played an essential role in ensuring that issues affecting infant and child health are identified and acted upon. It assists in improving the survival chances of children and infants since in case of any sickness families will seek appropriate care. Reducing The Impact Of HIV/AIDS It is evident that HIV/AIDS reduces the survival chances of an infant and child. Many of developing countries are putting efforts to ensure that communities get access to quality and effective HIV/AIDS support, medical care and health care especially pregnant women. There are also efforts to encourage pregnant women to seek services that will help decrease the impact of HIV and AIDS on their unborn and born children. Psychosocial and medical care are mainly provided by the government to protect the lives of children who are born to mothers infected from HIV and AIDS hence increasing their survival chances (Lawn et al, 2014). Affordability Of Medical Care Health care expenditures that include monetary resources spent on the provision of health care is increasing. Increase in the health care expenditures assists in promoting disease treatment, preventing death, preventing diseases, administering and providing public health, and administering and giving health program funds. Increasing government expenditure on health services helps in improving the attainment and access to health care services hence promoting children and infants survival. It assists in reducing the impact of illness on the productive life of children and infants. Also, increasing government expenditure ensure affordable access to medicine and healthcare hence improving the quality of life (Liu et al, 2015). Some governments have put in place measures like health insurance that helps in case an infant or child gets sick. Acceptability Of Community Health Workers Community Health Workers (CHW) requires to be trusted to deliver effective maternal and newborn health outcomes in developing countries. Acceptability of Community Health Workers involves respecting them when they are providing children and maternal health services at home. Training, supervision and supporting CHWs ensures that they gain professional and ability to deliver quality healthcare services hence improving the community trust and respect towards them. It also provides a good relationship between the community members and CHWs that helps in promoting the provision of adequate care in communities. Use of CHWs in developing countries has proven to be effective in improving the coverage of child, women and maternal health interventions hence leading to an increase in survival chances. Public Health Factors Public health in developing countries plays an essential role in increasing infant and child survival. The availability of sanitation, refuse disposal, water and access to public health facilities are the basic requirements for child survival. Access To Health Facilities Majority of developing countries are continuously increasing access to health care, especially to children and mothers. Many of the developing countries are continually abolishing fees for prenatal care in public hospitals and making the primary health care for children below the age of five and their mothers free of charge.  Also, a lot of efforts has been made to increase the available primary health care facilities and upgrade the existing facilities. These steps reflect are being carried out to strengthen the health care system and making it accessible to all people. The measures have greatly contributed to an improvement in child and infant survival (Adedini et al, 2014). Availability Of Sanitation Developing countries are increasing improving access to decent sanitation that has a favourable effect on the survival chances of children and infants. Improved sanitation facilities may include improved latrines, imposing flush toilets or composting toilets. Hygiene education has been carried out at developing countries to educate people on the importance of improved sanitation. Hygiene education addresses some issues like hand washing before preparing food and after toilet visiting (Lapillonne and Griffin, 2013). Hygiene education is vital on child survival because it ensures that diseases that may be due to unhygienic practices are addressed hence increasing the chances of child and infant survival. Availability Of Safe Water Availability of safe water is a necessary condition to ensure an increase in child survival.  Access to unsafe water is a public health problem and has direct and indirect effects on child and infant health. Unsafe water causes many of pervasive diseases hence risking the chances of child survival. Lack of access to clean drinking and safe water causes death from diarrhoea but in developing countries efforts have been made to increase access to clean and safe water. Provision of clean and safe water has been through public taps, rainwater collection, water connections, standpipes, and protected dug wells. There is also an emphasis on water treatment at home or source. Water treatment helps in reducing contamination (Ngure et al, 2014). Refuse Disposal Many of developing countries are increasingly putting in place mechanism for ensuring proper refuse disposal. Improperly disposed of refuse cause a severe health problem to infant and child hence reducing chances of survival.  Open dumpsites act as a source of pathogenic agents such as fungi, bacteria and viruses, and diseases vectors. Hepatitis B and C virus is higher in children and infants exposed to waste hence increasing chances of dying at an early age. Proximity To Health Care Facilities There has been an emphasis on most developing countries public health policy to abolish disparities that exist between rural-urban in health status. Improving the health status of rural children help in increasing their survival chances. Efforts that have been put by the government to improve the proximity of health care facilities include the construction and improvement of infrastructure to rural residents (Mason et al, 2014). Nutritional Factors Suitable nutrition is an essential factor for decreasing maternal and child mortality. Nutrition interventions are among the lifesaving factors that can help in increasing child and infant survival. There is a significant negative influence on the child survival that arises from under nutrition ranging from stunting, wasting, micronutrient deficiencies, fetal growth restriction and suboptimal breastfeeding (Cunningham, 2017. Malnutrition has a direct effect on child survival as it increases diseases, causes poor health and compromises immune function. It also hastens the severity, progression and duration of diseases hence reducing the survival chances of children. Interventions practices that some developing countries have put in place to minimize the effects of under nutrition include; Education on the importance of maternal nutrition during pregnancy. It includes training on the importance of calcium, folic and iron acid, and energy protein supplementation uptake (Mann and Truswell, 2017). Poor maternal nutrition causes the birth of underweight children and poor fetal development and hence reducing the child survival rates. Awareness of feeding practices of infants and young children. It includes exclusive and early breastfeeding and appropriate complementary feeding with food provided and prepared after hand washing. An infant’s not well breastfed are more likely to die from diarrhoea than those who have been breastfed well (Adhikari et al, 2014).  World Health Organization recommends up to 6 months of breastfeeding. Education on the importance of managing acute malnutrition and micronutrient supplementation for infants and children. Suitable managing of severe malnutrition that includes ready to use therapeutic reduces the child mortality (Black et al, 2013). Conclusion It is evident that the health of infants and children greatly depend on socio-economic, public health, nutritional and medical factors. Hence, to improve the survival chances of every infant and child, it is essential to take into considerations those factors. It is the responsibility of every government to improve the understanding of the mechanism that is required to increase child development, survival and guide evaluations. Guiding evaluations of how new health practices, new policy interventions and changing behavior affect children and infant’s health is significant in ensuring an increase in child survival. References Adedini, S.A., Odimegwu, C., Bamiwuye, O., Fadeyibi, O. and Wet, N.D., 2014. Barriers to accessing health care in Nigeria: implications for child survival. Global health action, 7(1), p.23499. Adhikari, M., Khanal, V., Karkee, R. and Gavidia, T., 2014. Factors associated with early initiation of breastfeeding among Nepalese mothers: further analysis of Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, 2011. International breastfeeding journal, 9(1), p.21. Bhutta, Z.A. and Black, R.E., 2013. Global maternal, newborn, and child health—so near and yet so far. New England Journal of Medicine, 369(23), pp.2226-2235. Black, R.E., Victora, C.G., Walker, S.P., Bhutta, Z.A., Christian, P., De Onis, M., Ezzati, M., Grantham-McGregor, S., Katz, J., Martorell, R. and Uauy, R., 2013. Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries. The lancet, 382(9890), pp.427-451. Bornstein, M.H. and Bradley, R.H., 2014. Socioeconomic status, parenting, and child development. Routledge. Cunningham, A.S., 2017. Breastfeeding: adaptive behavior for child health and longevity. Breastfeeding: Bicultural Perspectives, p.243. Khanal, V., Adhikari, M., Karkee, R. and Gavidia, T., 2014. Factors associated with the utilisation of postnatal care services among the mothers of Nepal: analysis of Nepal demographic and health survey 2011. BMC women’s health, 14(1), p.19. Koblinsky, M.A., Campbell, O.M. and Harlow, S.D., 2018. Mother and more: a broader perspective on women’s health. In The Health Of Women (pp. 33-62). Routledge. Lapillonne, A. and Griffin, I.J., 2013. Feeding preterm infants today for later metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes. The Journal of pediatrics, 162(3), pp.S7-S16. Lawn, J.E., Blencowe, H., Oza, S., You, D., Lee, A.C., Waiswa, P., Lalli, M., Bhutta, Z., Barros, A.J., Christian, P. and Mathers, C., 2014. Every Newborn: progress, priorities, and potential beyond survival. The Lancet, 384(9938), pp.189-205. Liu, L., Oza, S., Hogan, D., Perin, J., Rudan, I., Lawn, J.E., Cousens, S., Mathers, C. and Black, R.E., 2015. Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality in 2000–13, with projections to inform post-2015 priorities: an updated systematic analysis. The Lancet, 385(9966), pp.430-440. Mann, J. and Truswell, S. eds., 2017. Essentials of human nutrition. Oxford University Press. Mason, E., McDougall, L., Lawn, J.E., Gupta, A., Claeson, M., Pillay, Y., Presern, C., Lukong, M.B., Mann, G., Wijnroks, M. and Azad, K., 2014. From evidence to action to deliver a healthy start for the next generation. The Lancet, 384(9941), pp.455-467. Ngure, F.M., Reid, B.M., Humphrey, J.H., Mbuya, M.N., Pelto, G. and Stoltzfus, R.J., 2014. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), environmental enteropathy, nutrition, and early child development: making the links. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1308(1), pp.118-128. Patel, R.M., Kandefer, S., Walsh, M.C., Bell, E.F., Carlo, W.A., Laptook, A.R., Sánchez, P.J., Shankaran, S., Van Meurs, K.P., Ball, M.B. and Hale, E.C., 2015. Causes and timing of death in extremely premature infants from 2000 through 2011. New England Journal of Medicine, 372(4), pp.331-340. Raju, T.N., Mercer, B.M., Burchfield, D.J. and Joseph Jr, G.F., 2014. Periviable birth: executive summary of a joint workshop by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, American Academy of Pediatrics, and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 210(5), pp.406-417. Rutstein, S.O. and Winter, R., 2014. The effects of fertility behavior on child survival and child nutritional status: Evidence from the Demographic and Health Surveys 2006 to 2012. Stenberg, K., Axelson, H., Sheehan, P., Anderson, I., Gülmezoglu, A.M., Temmerman, M., Mason, E., Friedman, H.S., Bhutta, Z.A., Lawn, J.E. and Sweeny, K., 2014. Advancing social and economic development by investing in women’s and children’s health: a new Global Investment Framework. The Lancet, 383(9925), pp.1333-1354.

Basic features

  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support

On-demand options

  • Writer's samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading

Paper format

  • 275 words per page
  • 12pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, CHicago/Turabian, Havard)

Guaranteed originality

We guarantee 0% plagiarism! Our orders are custom made from scratch. Our team is dedicated to providing you academic papers with zero traces of plagiarism.

Affordable prices

We know how hard it is to pay the bills while being in college, which is why our rates are extremely affordable and within your budget. You will not find any other company that provides the same quality of work for such affordable prices.

Best experts

Our writer are the crème de la crème of the essay writing industry. They are highly qualified in their field of expertise and have extensive experience when it comes to research papers, term essays or any other academic assignment that you may be given!

Calculate the price of your order

You will get a personal manager and a discount.
We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:

Expert paper writers are just a few clicks away

Place an order in 3 easy steps. Takes less than 5 mins.

error: Content is protected !!
Open chat
How Can We Help You?
Affordable. Nursing. Papers Inc
Our Experts Are Online and Ready To Help You.