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PBHE111 Introduction To Healthcare Administration

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PBHE111 Introduction To Healthcare Administration Question: Write a report on the American healthcare system. Answer: Introduction The American healthcare system is at a state of flux because scientific research and knowledge, as well as technology in the country, continues to grow to change the definition of wellness and illness of various infection which is termed as a health hazard to the citizens. Citizens in the country are forced to respond by changing how healthcare professionals deliver healthcare services to them. Healthcare services have a very significant impact on the state (Atun et al., 2015). The effects of health care services involve ensuring that the well-being of citizens is catered by providing healthcare services to individuals whenever they are infected by various infections which improve quality of life in the country. It also creates job opportunities too; this is because it offers healthcare professionals the opportunity to earn a living by providing health care services to citizens (Boucher et al., 2013). The American healthcare system is also in the unstable situation because it has grown more into the economy and thus becoming a threat which can lead to collapsing of other public services such as education and maintenance of the infrastructure. Citizens in America over the last few years they have been trying to do something about the cost of health care services which seems to be very high making it hard for individuals from poor socio-economic backgrounds to access them. Even though the Affordable Care Act (ACA) policy which was established in 2010 is putting a lot of efforts to ensure that cost of health care services is reduced and made affordable to all citizens and that citizens can easily access healthcare attention by establishing more healthcare centers even in the remote areas, the policy has been facing a lot challenges from the opposition (Faden et al., 2013). The future of the healthcare system in America is highly uncertain, and it is, therefore, the role of every stakeholder to plan and act early in advance as time goes on. Current Outcomes And Cost Of Healthcare In America The healthcare system of America spends a lot of healthcare per capita as compared to other developed countries, and hence it does not seem to offer high-quality healthcare services to citizens. In 2015 the healthcare expenditure was predicted to rise by a rate of 20% in America gross domestic product (GDP) healthcare sector in the country has projected health expenditure to increase from 18.2% to 19.5% by 2021 (Owusu-Edusei et al., 2013). A large percentage of employers in America offer healthcare benefits to the employees, but they cut it back on the employee retiree benefits. Healthcare professionals are not able to control and manage healthcare services in the country because they are threatened by outsiders who are calling for government programs and customer-centered care.  Healthcare outcomes in America are not associated with any particular organization or any financial approach; the healthcare outcomes depends on the healthcare experts who are charged with the role of handling various health hazards in the country (Anderson et al., 2014). Stakeholders who are responsible for making health care policies should be able to reflect and ensure that Americans are getting better high-quality healthcare services regarding a large amount of capital they incur to get the treatment and medication. The study which was conducted in the country indicated that a large number of capital Americans bear compared to the kind of health care services which they get is unreasonable (McGinnis, Stuckhardt, Saunders & Smith, 2013). America spends more capital in the healthcare system than any other country. Even though Americans have to pay more expenditure on health care services they have to queue in hospitals because the state does not have enough healthcare facilities. Patients who seem to be from poor backgrounds are not treated the same as those who come from good backgrounds. Quality Of Health Care System In America The healthcare system is facing a lot of challenges, and it, therefore, requires urgent reform. There are various frameworks which can be applied when evaluating the quality of health care services offered by healthcare professionals to American (Zimlichman et al., 2013). These framework includes access to health care services by patients, continuity of care after a patient is discharged from the hospital, technical management which means the techniques and new technologies which are applied by healthcare professionals to take care of patients and the management of interpersonal relationships between healthcare professionals and patients. Even though there are many frameworks which can be used to evaluate the quality of care, these are the most commonly used ones. In the evaluation of the variety of healthcare services, stakeholders who are concerned have to employ system categorization with modification to be able to obtain appropriate results. Access and availability of health care services are considered vital values which determine the quality of health care services which are offered to patients. For example, in case a person is involved in an accident, he/she requires an ambulance so that they can be able to arrive at the hospital quickly and receive health care services which can be used to stabilize their health situation (Burwell, 2015). It is, therefore, necessary to have an ambulance available in cases of emergencies so that victims can be able to access healthcare institutions. With the availability of and accessibility of health care services, then the quality of the health care system is termed to be high or in the right term. For the healthcare system to be termed as of good quality, it should be able to take care of patients whose health situation life threatening regardless of them of being unable to pay for the services offered. Racial and ethnic health disparities is another factor which is used to evaluate the quality of health care services in America. In America, black infants are at very high risk of dying as compared to white infants. This is supposed to mean that there is discrimination in hospitals and blacks are isolated and mistreated. Healthcare professionals choose to give their efforts and a lot of attention to patients who can pay for health care services they receive. Which means patients who are not financially stable may be discriminated in the hospital which may cause their health situation to deteriorate. Technical management of care is another main framework which is used to determine the quality of healthcare (Obama, 2016). In America, health care professionals are well trained, and their credentials are carefully checked by healthcare institutions before they get employed. Healthcare sector of America should be able to manage interpersonal relationships because most Americans believe that for a patient to be able to receive high-quality health care services they should establish a therapeutic relationship with their healthcare professionals. The Complexity Of Healthcare In America One obstacle to access to health care services by citizens may be the complexity of publicly financed programs. Some of the health care programs which are provided by the government are only available to people who are federal poverty level. Some other state programs can enroll families up to 300% of FPL. Stakeholders should note with great concern that family’s needs make 200% to 300% of FPL before it has some capital which is left to cater for food, shelter, education and other essential which they need to have quality lives (Flores, Glusman, Brogaard, Price & Hood, 2013). Affordable care act (ACA) which was established in 2010 by key stakeholders in the health sector should ensure that health coverage expands to low and moderate income families so that they can also be able to access healthcare services whenever various infections infect them. This policy is affected by multiple challenges especially from the opposition which makes the health care system of America more complex. Since 2012 after the establishment of this policy, the Supreme Court which is ruling ACA has chosen not to support and participate in Medicaid expansion which is under the plan. The political sector which is marked with the development of the health care system has left ACA leaving the plan with a lot of financial complexities because they are not able to achieve all the set objectives. In the Medicaid program of America, the program has more than 50 independent healthcare system which is aimed at ensuring that the poor and disabled in the society can access health care services without them been discriminated by healthcare professionals (Misra et al., 2013). This policy covers most of their medical bills which include nursing home cares for the elderly and medication and treatment which is administered to them by healthcare professionals. Medicare which is federal health insurance for those adults who are above 65 years old is facing a lot of challenges which is making the health care system of America more complex. Americans who are in need of medical attention whose income is reduced, healthcare programs such as Medicaid should cover them. Industrializing Structure For Delivery Of Healthcare Industrialization is a term which is among the ways which can be sued to address undesirable healthcare trends in America. Industrialization was applied in the early 20th century to break large complex tasks into a small, simple task which were then assigned to different members of a team (Finkelstein & Taubman, 2015). It was also used to analyze and specify the best way in which a task can be handled to have positive results. This resulted into task been shifted from been controlled by craft people into a more systematic approach which is more efficient. Despite the monopolies which have been affecting the healthcare system in America, multiple healthcare tasks can be done in more than one level of healthcare professionals. An example is that midwives and obstetricians are also capable of helping pregnant women to deliver their babies. Through the use of industrialization pharmacies are now capable of using pharmacy technicians and pharmacists. Industrialization has led to the employment of more physicians to offer health care services to patients rather than having partners in nursing practice. Industrializing structure in the healthcare sector of America has made it possible for the exchange of external information which are related to experience and outcome quality of healthcare delivery as well as the cost which Americans should be charged with after they get medical care (Popescu, 2014). Industrialization has also led to the development of mire focused factories which can specialize in a few numbers of procedures which have led to specialization in hospitals and enhancement of the ambulatory surgery services. Medicalization Of The Society Life-threatening problems that require medical attention has increased over the last 30 years. The definition of these medical situations makes Americans be able to understand what health hazard they can be able to tolerate in their country and what conditions can be changed in their societies (Frances, 2013). The recent study which was conducted indicates that British patients reported better health improvement after seeking medical attention and spending less capital as compared to Americans who have to spend a lot of money to pay for the health care services which they receive from healthcare institutions and they show no improvement in their health conditions. Some of the factors which contribute to this results include the stress level in America. It clear that the number of people who are living with various infections in America is higher as compared to those who are healthy (Drees, Pineles, Harris & Morgan, 2014) . This has led to the definition that a healthy person is the one who has been examined by a healthcare professional and confirmed to be free of infections.  Another main issue which is associated with the medicalization of society in America is the dependence of the economy. A study which was conducted in 2006 indicates that construction and healthcare sector in America has led to rapid growth of in the private sector which has led to employment opportunities. In the same year, the healthcare sector was able to have 1.7 million jobs in the country (Bandini, 2015). Healthcare issues and challenges which are experienced in the country has increased the emphasis in news reporting, television advertisements, and television programming as well as recreation facilities.  Medicalization has led to an increase in both political and economic risks. Conclusion Healthcare system in America is said to be a flux state. This happens because of changing nature of the infection and the treatment and medication techniques which are used to handle diseases (Flores, Glusman, Brogaard, Price & Hood, 2013). The quality of health care services which are offered to Americans requires a lot of capital as compared to other developed countries. It is also clear that patients who are financially unstable are not treated the same way as compared to those who have money (Boucher et al., 2013). It is, therefore, the role of policymakers to ensure that they establish some rules which punish healthcare professionals who seem to isolate patients because of their poor background status. Healthcare system in America should adopt industrialization of the structure so that it be easy and more efficient to deliver health care services to the citizens. References Anderson, J. L., Heidenreich, P. A., Barnett, P. G., Creager, M. A., Fonarow, G. C., Gibbons, R. J., … & Masoudi, F. A. (2014). ACC/AHA statement on cost/value methodology in clinical practice guidelines and performance measures: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Performance Measures and Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 63(21), 2304-2322. Atun, R., De Andrade, L. O. M., Almeida, G., Cotlear, D., Dmytraczenko, T., Frenz, P., … & De Paula, J. B. (2015). Health-system reform and universal health coverage in Latin America. The Lancet, 385(9974), 1230-1247. Bandini, J. (2015). The medicalization of bereavement:(Ab) normal grief in the DSM-5. Death studies, 39(6), 347-352. Boucher, H. W., Talbot, G. H., Benjamin Jr, D. K., Bradley, J., Guidos, R. J., Jones, R. N., … & Infectious Diseases Society of America. (2013). 10×’20 progress—development of new drugs active against gram-negative bacilli: an update from the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clinical infectious diseases, 56(12), 1685-1694. Burwell, S. M. (2015). Setting value-based payment goals—HHS efforts to improve US health care. N Engl J Med, 372(10), 897-899. Drees, M., Pineles, L., Harris, A. D., & Morgan, D. J. (2014). Variation in definitions and isolation procedures for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria: a survey of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America Research Network. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 35(4), 362-366. Faden, R. R., Kass, N. E., Goodman, S. N., Pronovost, P., Tunis, S., & Beauchamp, T. L. (2013). An ethics framework for a learning health care system: a departure from traditional research ethics and clinical ethics. Hastings Center Report, 43(s1), S16-S27. Finkelstein, A., & Taubman, S. (2015). Randomize evaluations to improve health care delivery. Science, 347(6223), 720-722. Flores, M., Glusman, G., Brogaard, K., Price, N. D., & Hood, L. (2013). P4 medicine: how systems medicine will transform the healthcare sector and society. Personalized medicine, 10(6), 565-576.. Frances, A. (2013). Saving normal: An insider’s revolt against out-of-control psychiatric diagnosis, DSM-5, big pharma and the medicalization of ordinary life. Psychotherapy in Australia, 19(3), 14. McGinnis, J. M., Stuckhardt, L., Saunders, R., & Smith, M. (Eds.). (2013). Best care at lower cost: the path to continuously learning health care in America. National Academies Press. Misra, P., Agarwal, N., Kasabwala, K., Hansberry, D. R., Setzen, M., & Eloy, J. A. (2013). Readability analysis of healthcare?oriented education resources from the american academy of facial plastic and reconstructive surgery. The Laryngoscope, 123(1), 90-96. Obama, B. (2016). United States health care reform: progress to date and next steps. Jama, 316(5), 525-532. Owusu-Edusei Jr, K., Chesson, H. W., Gift, T. L., Tao, G., Mahajan, R., Ocfemia, M. C. B., & Kent, C. K. (2013). The estimated direct medical cost of selected sexually transmitted infections in the United States, 2008. Sexually transmitted diseases, 40(3), 197-201. Popescu, G. H. (2014). Economic aspects influencing the rising costs of health care in the United States. American Journal of Medical Research, 1(1), 47-52. Zimlichman, E., Henderson, D., Tamir, O., Franz, C., Song, P., Yamin, C. K., … & Bates, D. W. (2013). Health care–associated infections: a meta-analysis of costs and financial impact on the US health care system. JAMA internal medicine, 173(22), 2039-2046.

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