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PHC 261 Occupational Health Question Explain low back pain, causes, treatment and prevention? Answer  Low Back Pain Low back pain can be termed as the discomfort and pain that occurs above the inferior gluteal folds and below the costal margin. It involves nerves, bones, and muscles. The pain could vary between a sharp and sudden feeling to a dull ache constantly occurring (Dagenais & Haldeman, 2011). Low back pain can be classified as acute i.e. lasting for a duration of less than six weeks or chronic i.e. lasting for more than 12 weeks. Causes In many occasions, low back pains are caused by injuries to the soft tissue and mechanical issues (Dagenais & Haldeman, 2011). Some of these injuries include; Compression of the nerve roots Damage to the intervertebral discs Wrong movement of the spinal joints Torn and/or pulled ligament and/or tissues remains to be the single leading and most common cause of pain in the lower back.   Treatment Home treatment for a few weeks does a good job in relieving most cases of acute low back pain. Heat and over the counter pain relievers are also good for treating acute pain. It is however not recommended to have bed rest. Recommended drugs are muscle relaxants, narcotics, topical pain relievers, injections such as cortisone and antidepressants such as amitriptyline (Cox, 2012). Prevention Exercising core muscles is one effective technique of preventing lower back pain. Core muscles that are strong enough are effective in providing support for the lower back. Also, people should avoid postures that exert pressure on the lower back and causing pain on degenerated discs. Heavy objects should be lifted correctly to avoid injuries. It is also advisable that people sleep on their sides rather than on their backs (Clapis & Chevan, 2012). References Clapis, P. A., & Chevan, E. (2012). Physical Therapy Management of Low Back Pain (illustrated ed.). Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Cox, J. M. (2012). Low Back Pain: Mechanism, Diagnosis and Treatment (7 ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Dagenais, S., & Haldeman, S. (2011). Evidence-based Management of Low Back Pain (illustrated ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences.

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