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PHI 511 Foundations Of Public Health

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PHI 511 Foundations Of Public Health Question: Read and analyse the article: Simple Psychological Interventions for Reducing Pain From Common Needle Procedures in Adults.   Write about how visual and music distraction help reduce pain from common needle procedures in Adults. Answer: How Visual And Music Distraction Help Reduce Pain From Common Needle Procedures In Adults Needle procedures are almost inevitable when administering medication to individuals. Injections that includes vaccinations and those for disease treatments are usually administered to individuals ranging from young children to adults of any age. When this procedure is being done, pain is experienced, which has let to fear and subsequent low turnout in individuals taking needle injections. Psychological and procedural interventions have been devised to help reduce such pains, but more of such interventions are directed to helping children. According to the studies conducted, less breakthrough has been made in psychological interventions such as music and visual distractions in reducing the needle pain. According to Boerner et al.(2015), psychological interventions in children has proven to be working and therefore, have been recommended to healthcare professionals to utilize such approaches. Unlike in children, there are no psychological interventions that have been proved to be working in adults. According to the research conducted regarding the use of music to cause distractions and subsequently reduce pain on 156 adults yielded negative results. Music distractions will not lead to lower needle pains in adults (Boerner et al., 2015). According to this research, verbal signals plays slightly an important role in influencing individuals undergoing the procedure. Signaling patients on the impending pain will make individuals feel pain, unlike the verbal signals regarding the impending procedure which makes the patients feel lees pain. When visual distractions are used in adults (Whereby, the kaleidoscopes were used), no pains seemed to be reduced. Breathing interventions that include coughing and breath-holding researched on 138 adults proved to be working as a mode of reducing needle pains. Deep inhalation and “cough trick” makes an individual to feel less pain during the procedure. When patients take their time to breathe, or a cough without moving their arms, less pain will be felt. Coughing decrease pressure and tension that exists when one is expecting an injection. This will subsequently inhibit, or largely reduce the pain that the patient would otherwise feel. For music and other visual approaches to be effective in reducing pain in adults, then there must be a capability for them to reduce anxiety. Also, attention from the pain stimulus needs to be completely diverted. Initiating a good conversation before vaccinations or any other injections will make patients reduce their anxiety, and in the process, they will feel less pain. Conclusion Most of the studies that have been done regarding interventions to reduce pain when performing needle procedures largely dwell on children. More research needs to be done on various psychological methods that may be used in adults to reduce pain during injections. According to the current studies and research, music or verbal and visual distractions have been proven not to reduce pains at all in adults. The fear of needle pains in most of the adults has led to a decreased number of blood tests in hospitals, which is in this case, may result in negative impacts on the health of individuals. Vaccines, for example, are useful for disease prevention, and if there is a low turnout in a vaccination process, a large population will be vulnerable to diseases that are preventable. Therefore, there is need to perform more research on how to distract the anxiety of adults during the needle procedures. References Boerner, K. E., Birnie, K. A., Chambers, C. T., Taddio, A., McMurtry, C. M., Noel, M., … & Riddell, R. P. (2015). Simple psychological interventions for reducing pain from common needle procedures in adults: systematic review of randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials. The Clinical journal of pain, 31(Suppl 10), S90.

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