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Prevalence Insufficient Physical Activities

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Prevalence Insufficient Physical Activities Question: Discuss about the Prevalence of insufficient physical activities     Answer: Cardiovascular Disorders: Diseases that involve heart and blood vessels are mainly termed as heart or cardiovascular disorders. It includes different types of problems one of which may be atherosclerosis. This occurs when a condition develops where plaques build up in the arteries and narrows the walls of the arteries. It becomes harder for the blood to flow resulting in stroke or attack. Blood clots may also prevent smooth blood blow through the blood vessels and therefore the muscles of the heart which is supplied by this blood begins to die resulting in attack. When a blood vessel serving the brain gets blocked, the cells in that part of the brain shut off affecting in walking, talking and others. This is ischemic attack.  Bursting of blood vessels within the brain is called hemorrhagic attack. Sometimes problematic pumping of heart, arrhythmia and heart valve problems also arise. According to data provided by the World Health Organisation, cardiovascular disorders are considered to be one of the leading cause of death at a global level. Annually huge number of people are seen to die from this disorder than ither such disorders. An estimation made by them saw that 17.7 million people have died from the disorder in the year 2015. This accounted for about 31% of the global deaths in the world. Out of these deaths, it was even found out that 7.4 million people died as a result if coronary disorders and 6.7 million people died due to stroke. It was also found that three quarter of the number of deaths mainly was accounted from low and middle income countries (World Health Organization 2017). If one looks over the prevalence rate of the disorder in United Kingdom, it can be seen that the year 2017 witnessed a total of about 602782 deaths due to cardiovascular disorders with more being in women for about 310075 and comparatively lesser in men like about 292707. The highest death rate was found to be among the age cohort of 85+ accounting for about 236970 followed by the age cohort of 75 to 84 which account for about 173603. The death numbers increase from the age of 35 towards 85+ ( 2017). Risk factors for cardiovascular disorders can mainly be classified in three categories. The first is the medical conditions which increase the chance of an individual being affected by the disorders. These are the presence of high blood pressure. Besides, high cholesterol and diabetes also are marked as harmful that causes cardiovascular disorders. The second category is the unhealthy behaviours that lead to the disorders. This includes unhealthy diets, physical inactivity as well as obesity ( 2017). Huge amount of alcohol consumption and use of tobacco also expose individuals to this disorder. Besides, researchers are also of the opinion that genetics and family history also play important roles in the disorders. Age, sex as well as race or ethnicity also acts as important factors that determine the cardiovascular disorders occurring among them.    The department of health of the United Kingdom had published an important policy namely ‘The Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes Strategy- Improving Outcomes for People with or at Risk of Cardiovascular Disease’ (, 2017). This was published mainly under the coalition government 2010 to 2015. Another one policy was published in 2015 in the month of June called the ‘Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes: Policies for Better Health and Quality of Care’ by OECD ( 2017). A member of Cardio and Vascular Coalition (CVC) which is formed from 40 voluntary organisations working along with the government has provided many important interventions. In order to control unhealthy behaviours they have tried to keep a check on public health regulatory measures and try in restricting the advertisement of high fat, sugar and salt foods to children and others as well as introduction of plain packaging for tobacco products. Moreover CVC has also taken care that when any members are suffering from heart disorders, they should be able to access care, care should be present right place and at right time making healthcare centres be more active and providing patients with person-centred care. From the above discussion, it becomes quite clear that cardiovascular disorders are one of the most dreaded disorders in United Kingdom. The government however has tried its best to tackle the issues and have proposed interventions to handle them successfully.   Obesity: Obesity can be defined as the physical condition where the person mainly accumulates a huge amount of fat in his body which in turn has negative impacts on health of the individual. Body mass index is actually a statistical measurement which is mainly measured from the weight as well as height of the individuals. When the BMI is below 25, it is said to be normal. When it is between 25 and 29.9, the individual is considered to be overweight and when it is 30 or above, it is considered that the individual is obese. Obesity in turn makes the individual expose to a number of other disorders like cardiovascular diseases, respiratory syndromes, osteoarthritis, diabetes and many others. This makes the life of an obese individual not only difficult but also makes him lead a poor quality life both physically and emotionally. World Health Organisation has updated their fact sheet in the year 2017 in the month of October with recent statistics of the people globally being affected by obesity. WHO is of the opinion that worldwide burden of obesity has nearly become thrice the number which was present in the year 1975. In the year of 2016, it was seen that about 1.9 billion adults above the age of 18 are overweight. Out of them, 650 million people are found to be obese. This states that about 39% of the people globally above the age of 18 are found to be overweight in the year of 2016 with about 13% found to be obese. Researchers are of the opinion that most of the population of the world live in countries where death due to overweight is more than that of death due to being underweight. About 41 million children globally coming under the age of 5 are found to be overweight. About 240 million children living between the ages of 5 to 19 are found either overweight or obese (World Health Organization 2017). If one ponders upon the prevalence in the United Kingdom, it can be seen that in year 2017, one in four British adults are found to be obese which accounts for 24.9% of the population. About 62% of the population are found to be overweight. It is striking to find out that obesity levels in United Kingdom have been tripled in the year last 30 years and at the current rates, experts are of the opinion that there will be 11 million more obese adults in the year 2030. 24 % of the British men and 26% of the British women suffer from obesity which takes the second position in the world. 3 in 10 children aged 2 to 15 are overweight or obese ( 2017). A large number of risk factors remain associated with this disorder. Consuming too many calories, leading a sedentary lifestyle and not sleeping enough are recognised by researchers to be some. Besides, some foods act as endocrine disruptors affecting lipid metabolism process. There are certain medications which also result in gaining weight. Recent researchers are of the opinion that a gene which they named as obesity gene is also resulting in obesity. It is a faulty gene called FTO which makes 1 in every 6 people overeat making them prefer high energy, fatty foods. A policy paper was released in the name of “2010 to 2015 government policy: obesity and healthy eating” which helped by providing actions that needs to be taken and at set up certain objectives to overcome obesity within the year 2020 ( 2017). Besides, there is also another policy called the “Healthy Lives, Healthy People: A Call to Action on Obesity in England”. Another policy that was also introduced by the department of health under the government is the Childhood obesity: a plan for action. It was updated in 2017 in the month of January and mainly concerned around helping childhood obesity to be erased away from United Kingdom (, 2017). Government had taken initiatives to make people more careful and eating and drinking healthily. They had introduced diet and physical activity advice through Change4Life programme. The government is also instructing businesses to conduct their business keeping in mind to make products healthier by cutting down sugar contents and similar others. Innovate UK, also conducted a “collaborative research and development” called R&D competition worth £10 million for research. This was done to stimulate new processes as well as products to increase the presence of healthier food choices for customers and also to open up new markets. Therefore as obesity is becoming a major concern, government is retying their best to reduce the effects of such disorder on population. Individuals should also be responsible and make lifestyle choices that have positive impacts on their health.   Smoking: Smoking can be explained as an unhealthy behaviour that turns onto addiction almost in all individuals who consume them. Smoking results in worsening of physiological systems of the body resulting in damage of almost every tissue in the body. It results in occurring of different diseases in the body of the individuals which includes lung cancer. It also exacerbates many other diseases which include diabetes, lung diseases, cancer as well as different cardiovascular disorders. It also causes hypertension, cholesterols become high, blood clots occur and even strokes take place. All these mainly occur because smoking of tobacco exposes the individual to around 4000 chemicals. Many of such chemicals are toxic. Toxins which are found in cigarettes include formaldehyde as well as cyanide. Other harmful substances mainly include formaldehyde as well as cyanide. Smoking exposes individuals to carbon monoxide which lowers the levels of oxygen in the blood (Westerhof et al. 2015). Passive smokers like those people who are exposed to the smoke also remain exposed to the similar toxins. WHO global reports on trends in tobacco smoking 2000 to 2015 has estimated that smoking tobacco was the main reason for the death of about six million people across the world in each year. This figure also involves the 600000 people who are staitistically found  to die from the effects of second hand smoke as well (World Health Organization, 2017). Current data taken in the year 2016 shows that about 15.5 % of adults above the age of 18 practices the habit of smoking which has reduced from the level of 19.9 % from the year 2010. Researchers are also of the opinion that throughout the year of 2015 to 2016, there have been about 474 thousand hospital admissions. They have also stated that the deaths in the same year had been noted around 79 thousands. This actually represents for about 16 percent of all deaths taking place in United Kingdom (, 2017). Some of the risk factors that accumulate as the causes of development of smoking habits are family attitudes where parents, grandparents, siblings or other broader family member smoke. Besides peer pressure is also another factor. Copycatting smoking behaviours to keep up the “cool” quotient in popular cultures also make them exposed to learning. Socio-demographic factors, personality traits, availability of tobacco products all make individuals exposed to smoking. Besides, stress also exposes an individual to pick up such habits. Department of health of the United Kingdom has proposed a policy which has been published in the year 2017 which has the title “Towards a Smoke free Generation A Tobacco Control Plan for England” which had actually proposed a number of action plans for controlling tobacco smoking in England (A Tobacco Control Plan for England (2017-2022) 2017). Another policy is called the Smoking Still Kills which is proposed by Action on Smoking and Health and funded by Cancer Research UK and the British Heart Foundation. This was mainly proposed after the government’s five year plan for tobacco control came to an end in the year 2015 (Action on Smoking and Health, 2017). At the national level, the government had taken initiatives to provide training to all healthcare professionals on the topic of smoking cessations mainly including those professionals who work with mental health patients. The government is also reviewing the types and levels of sanctions for tobacco retailers who are breaking laws which are designed to protect young people from developing such habits. Therefore, one should himself or herself develop the confidence to overcome the habits of smoking for personal benefits and can thereby lead proper quality life.   Physical Inactivity: Physical activity may be defined as the bodily movement which takes place due to the movement of the skeletal muscles along with expenditure of energy. This may include any activities which may be undertaken during playing, working, performing household chores, travelling as well as taking part in recreational pursuits. In order to be physically active, adults should do 150 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity for a week or at least 75 minutes vigorous activities through the week or a combination of both. However such levels are not achieved. Insufficient physical activity has been described by WHO to be one of the leading factors of death worldwide. It is also suggested that it acts a risk factor for different non communicable diseases that involve cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and cancer. WHO has pointed out the statistics which states that on a global scale, 1 in 4 adults is not active enough (Physical inactivity WHO 2017). It has also stated 80% of the adolescents of the world is insufficiently physically active. One astonishing fact is that the high income countries have double the prevalence when comparison is done with the low income countries fir both the men and women. 41% of men and 48% of women are found to be physically inactive in the high income countries but 18% of men and 21% of women are inactive in the low income countries (Global Health Observatory (GHO) data WHO 2017). “Statistics on Obesity, Physical Activity and Diet” in 2017 state that lack of physical inactivity was observed when 58% of women and 68% of men are overweight or obese. There were 525 thousand admissions in NHS hospitals where obesity was recorded to be factors. Physical inactivity is mainly taking place as a result of the sedentary lifestyles people are living nowadays. The recent technologies have made life easier and people get their commodities, food and necessities with simple clicks on their gadgets. Moreover the entertainments nowadays have shifted to indoor gaming, video games, cinemas and others for which people have become lazy or do not require the need to be physically active. It is extremely important for people to conduct physical activities to keep themselves in good health and shape. Department of health of the government of United Kingdom had published a series of policy papers with guidelines for different age cohort which have been found to be extremely helpful to guide people about how to keep themselves in proper shapes (NHS Digital 2017). Governments had advised parents to contribute some structure or formality which would help providing enabling environments within which children would be stimulated to play more constructively. This would help them to generate their own physical active games and plays. With the help of guidelines, governments are also trying adults to develop better lifestyles with proper exercises to keep themselves fit and healthy. A proper lifestyle and physically active life can protect individuals from the grasps of a number of ailments.   References: Action on Smoking and Health. 2017. Smoking Still Kills – Action on Smoking and Health. [online] Available at: [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. 2017. Cardiovascular Disease Statistics 2017. [online] Available at: [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. 2017. Heart Disease Risk Factors | [online] Available at: [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. Department of Health 2017 Towards a smoke-free generation: a tobacco control plan for England [E] [Online] Available at: ile/629455/Towards_a_Smoke_free_Generation_- _A_Tobacco_Control_Plan_for_England_2017-2022.pdf (Accessed: 18 July 2017) 2017. Statistics on Smoking, England – 2017 [PAS]. [online] Available at: [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. 2017. Uk Obesity Statistics In 2017. [online] Available at: [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. 2017. 2010 to 2015 government policy: obesity and healthy eating – GOV.UK. [online] Available at: [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. 2017. Childhood obesity: a plan for action – GOV.UK. [online] Available at: [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. 2017. Improving cardiovascular disease outcomes: strategy – GOV.UK. [online] Available at: [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. 2017. Statistics on Obesity, Physical Activity and Diet, England 2017 – GOV.UK. [online] Available at: [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. Malik, V.S., Willett, W.C. and Hu, F.B., 2013. Global obesity: trends, risk factors and policy implications. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 9(1), pp.13-27. NHS Digital 2017 Statistics on Obesity, Physical Activity and Diet – England 2017 [Online] Available at: age=1&area=both#top (Accessed 8 June 2017) 2017. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes: Policies for Better Health and Quality of Care. [online] Available at: [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. Westerhof, G., De Groot, C., Amelink, M., De Nijs, S., Weersink, E., Ten Brinke, A. and Bel, E., 2015. Risk factors for frequent exacerbations in (ex) smoking and never-smoking adult-onset asthma patients. 2017. WHO | Prevalence of insufficient physical activity. [online] Available at: [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. World Health Organization. 2017. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). [online] Available at: [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. World Health Organization. 2017. Obesity and overweight. [online] Available at: [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. World Health Organization. 2017. Physical activity. [online] Available at: [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. World Health Organization. 2017. WHO global report on trends in tobacco smoking 2000-2025. [online] Available at: [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017].

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