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PUBH6006 Community Health And Disease Prevention

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PUBH6006 Community Health And Disease Prevention Question Prepare a community engagement and mobilization strategy for an emergency response plan for an outbreak of the Ebola virus. Your strategy should clearly state a step-by-step approach that ensures that communities are engaged to have an active role alongside authorities and health agencies in the plan to rapidly respond to the threat of the spread of the disease. The strategy should use headings for each stage of engagement, consultation, participation, organisation, capacity building, actionand possibly empowerment. Explain your decision to use either a top-down and/or bottom-up approach. Assessment : Demonstrates  knowledge  and  understanding  of  different  approaches  to  health  emergency preparedness and response. Demonstrates the ability tocritique the advantages of using a bottom-up approach versus a top-down approach to health emergency preparedness and response. Demonstrates  the  ability  to  apply  knowledge  of theories  and  models  of health  emergency preparedness and response to an existing community health problem. Answer Introduction Ebola virus diseases occasionally named Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever or EHF is the illness caused by contamination with the Ebola virus (World Health Organization, 2014). Ebola infection is a severe illness that first found in Africa, where the big outbreak happened in 2014-15. In the month of June 2016, the outburst was formally declared finished (Park et al., 2015). Certain cases also found in areas of central Africa (Dallatomasina et al., 2015). About 28,000 Ebola cases and exceeding 11,000 expiries were reported by the WHO (World Health Organization) (Dallatomasina et al., 2015). This was considered as the main known outburst of Ebola (Dallatomasina et al., 2015). In this particular assessment, the theoretical framework will be applied to develop effective health promotion interventions to address the Ebola outbreak will be discussed. Outbreak And Control Strategies  Ebola is the infrequent and often deadly illness instigated by the pathogen of the Filoviridae family, and Ebolavirus genus, which comprise five different viruses: Sudan virus, Ebola virus (EBOV), Taï Forest virus, Bundibugyo virus, and Reston virus (Rewar & Mirdha, 2014). Ebola infection was first documented in 1976 during the two different near-immediate outbursts: one triggered by Ebola virus in Zaire that included 318 people and nearly 280 deaths and another instigated by the Sudan virus in the Sudan country that covered 284 new cases and 151 expires (Pandey et al., 2014). These and other outbreaks of Ebola virus in Central and Eastern African countries had CFRs of about 25 –90 percent happened in resource-lacking health centres where transportation, health upkeep, and other facilities are inadequate; and carry on from numerous weeks to about 90 days (Rachah & Torres, 2015)  Community Engagement Community engagement is important for discovery and stopping Ebola virus infection. To drive Ebola cases decrease to zero, all communities should be vigorously involved in the response in contradiction of Ebola virus (Laverack, & Manoncourt, 2016). World Health Organization stated that engagement of community is the most important factor that motivates the achievement of all other regulatory measures (World Health Organization, 2014).   Community Engagement And Mobilization  In emergency contexts this is the first time when, social mobilization and community engagement comprised as the cluster system or pillar in the three highly exaggerated countries, demonstrating an important area of emphasis for the reaction (Briand, Bertherat, Cox, Formenty, Kieny, Myhre, & Dye, 2014). This type of cluster systems were ran by the departments of wellbeing and their consistent procedural units with help from health organizations and public society systems (Briand, Bertherat, Cox, Formenty, Kieny, Myhre, & Dye, 2014). The other pillars usually included epidemiology/surveillance, broadcasting and communication, case maintaining/contact finding, infection regulation, burials, laboratories, logistics/supplies, child protection and psychosocial support, and other subdivisions such as sanitation and water, HIV/AIDS, nutrition, education, health (Briand et al., 2014). The central purpose of the communal deployment and public involvement support was to organize determinations and design an approach to emphasis on important behaviours, counting measuring and recording on important act indicators. The UNICEF or United Nations Children’s Fund was elected as co-principal for that pillar with civil society and government and complements in all of the nations, while functioning carefully with several other associates (Santibañez, Siegel, O’Sullivan, Lacson, & Jorstad, 2015). Communication and Sustained engagement with public groups active at the native level assist to build confidence and trust in response struggles, and allows community contribution and act for the Ebola response (Gillespie, Obregon, El Asawi, Richey, Manoncourt, Joshi, & Quereshi, 2016). Through the present Ebola virus disorder (EVD) outburst there have been numerous fears and stories resulting in unsafe actions rising from concerned for family members at home and coming in contact with individuals who have expired due to EVD at old-style funerals (Gillespie et al., 2016). Progressively, community engagement is considered essential for discovering new diagnosis of EVD, and finding contacts of persons who are affected with EVD or have expired from the disorder (Santibañez, Siegel, O’Sullivan, Lacson, & Jorstad, 2015). Community engagement by social mobilisation is identified as vital for the actions against Ebola and can play a key part in the decrease in transmission rates throughout the 2014–15 in West Africa eruptions (Santibañez, Siegel, O’Sullivan, Lacson, & Jorstad, 2015). Particularly, while global and local health societies synchronized community engagement struggles with native health sections and local frontrunners, societies also took difficulties into their individual hands, and a biological community reaction reappeared as the way to deal with the deficiency of or late-received resources (Briand et al., 2014). Members of the Community should engage in the training sessions in many features of the reaction so that they also can back safely and efficiently to preventing the spread of this life threatening disease (Chan, 2014). Bottom-Up Verses Top-Down Approaches Bottom-Up Treatment of Ebola virus disease by using Statin and ARB Native doctors in Sierra Leone were capable to cure about 100 Ebola infect people with a mixtsure of atorvastatin (a statin) and irbesartan (an ARB). Altogether but three ineffectively patients survived. One doctor described the outcomes as “remarkable.” Treatment included two medicines every day for up to ten days, alongside with the normal care delivered in the Ebola management units. The medications apparently clogged the loss of liquid from the blood, and this stopped a deadly decrease in blood pressure. Top-Down Getting to zero The early ‘getting to zero’ approach was top-down and determined by epidemiological information and the observed necessity to cure Ebola-infected people. According to Laverack, & Manoncourt, (2016), the main organizations learned from their previous errors in the existing outburst and have ended a open effort to better involvement of groups; though, bottom-up methods have not been extensively applied and this can lie in the activity first choice to practice pre-packaged and top-down methods that have a stress on behaviour modification communication (Buseh, Stevens, Bromberg, & Kelber, 2015). Prevention Strategies The Ebola outburst in West Africa is currently over Frieden, & Damon, 2015). The threat of getting the infection while roaming to earlier affected nations is very minor (Frieden, & Damon, 2015). However, if people traveling one of these parts, it is still a decent idea to track these simple protections to reduce your risk of being in contact with potentially severe infections: Washing hands regularly using cleanser and water Alcohol hand scrubs should be used when soap is not obtainable it should be ensured that vegetables and fruit are appropriately eroded and unpeeled before  eating them Avoid physical interaction with anybody who has likely symptoms of the infection Do not handle deceased creatures or their uncooked meat Do not consume “bushmeat”(Frieden, & Damon, 2015). Conclusion Ebola infection is the sickness that caused by the infection from Ebola virus. Between 2014 -2015 Ebola outbreaks leads to 28000 cases and 11000 deaths. The community engagement and mobilisation are found to be effected during the outbreak of Ebola in different parts of the worlds. It has been supported by different parts of Africa and other nations. Emergency warning and public information about Ebola should be spread among the people and hospital staff. Skilled and proper staff should be hired and enrolled in the system to spread information and awareness among the people. Two bottom up and top down strategies are implemented previously in Ebola issues. On bottom-up approaches were Statin and ARB treatment that includes two different medicines. This method was found to be affected as it increases the immunity. Other top-down method was getting zero which was determined by the epidemiological data and important to deal with Ebola-infected individuals. Some of the prevention strategies that should be followed to prevent the infection are washing hands with soap or alcohol, washing vegetables, not consuming meat or bush meat.    References Briand, S., Bertherat, E., Cox, P., Formenty, P., Kieny, M. P., Myhre, J. K., … & Dye, C. (2014). The international Ebola emergency. New England Journal of Medicine, 371(13), 1180-1183. Buseh, A. G., Stevens, P. E., Bromberg, M., & Kelber, S. T. (2015). The Ebola epidemic in West Africa: challenges, opportunities, and policy priority areas. Nursing Outlook, 63(1), 30-40. Chan, M. (2014). Ebola virus disease in West Africa—no early end to the outbreak. New England Journal of Medicine, 371(13), 1183-1185. Dallatomasina, S., Crestani, R., Sylvester Squire, J., Declerk, H., Caleo, G. M., Wolz, A., & Spreicher, A. (2015). Ebola outbreak in rural West Africa: epidemiology, clinical features, and outcomes. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 20(4), 448-454. Dixon, M. G., & Schafer, I. J. (2014). Ebola viral disease outbreak–West Africa, 2014. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 63(25), 548-551. Fedson, D. S., & Rordam, O. M. (2015). Treating Ebola patients: a ‘bottom-up approach using generic statins and angiotensin receptor blockers. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 36, 80-84. Forrester, J. D., Pillai, S. K., Beer, K. D., Neatherlin, J., Massaquoi, M., Nyenswah, T. G., & De, K. C. (2014). Assessment of Ebola virus disease, health care infrastructure, and preparedness-four counties, Southeastern Liberia, August 2014. Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 63(40), 891-893. Frieden, T. R., & Damon, I. K. (2015). Ebola in West Africa—CDC’s role in epidemic detection, control, and prevention. Emerging infectious diseases, 21(11), 1897. Gostin, L. O., Lucey, D., & Phelan, A. (2014). The Ebola epidemic: a global health emergency. Jama, 312(11), 1095-1096. Gillespie, A. M., Obregon, R., El Asawi, R., Richey, C., Manoncourt, E., Joshi, K., … & Quereshi, S. (2016). Social mobilization and community engagement central to the Ebola response in West Africa: Lessons for future public health emergencies. Global Health: Science and Practice, 4(4), 626-646. Kruk, M. E., Myers, M., Varpilah, S. T., & Dahn, B. T. (2015). What is a resilient health system? Lessons from Ebola. The Lancet, 385(9980), 1910-1912. Laverack, G., & Manoncourt, E. (2016). Key experiences of community engagement and social mobilization in the Ebola response. Global health promotion, 23(1), 79-82. Leach, M. (2015). The Ebola Crisis and Post?2015 Development. Journal of International Development, 27(6), 816-834. Pandey, A., Atkins, K. E., Medlock, J., Wenzel, N., Townsend, J. P., Childs, J. E., & Galvani, A. P. (2014). Strategies for containing Ebola in West Africa. Science, 346(6212), 991-995. Park, D. J., Dudas, G., Wohl, S., Goba, A., Whitmer, S. L., Andersen, K. G., & Winnicki, S. M. (2015). Ebola virus epidemiology, transmission, and evolution during seven months in Sierra Leone. Cell, 161(7), 1516-1526. Rachah, A., & Torres, D. F. (2015). Mathematical modeling, simulation, and optimal control of the 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa. Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society, 2015. Rewar, S., & Mirdha, D. (2014). Transmission of Ebola virus disease: an overview. Annals of global health, 80(6), 444-451. Rid, A., & Emanuel, E. J. (2014). Ethical considerations of experimental interventions in the Ebola outbreak. The Lancet, 384(9957), 1896-1899. Santibañez, S., Siegel, V., O’Sullivan, M., Lacson, R., & Jorstad, C. (2015). Health communications and community mobilization during an Ebola response: partnerships with community and faith-based organizations. Public Health Reports, 130(2), 128-133. World Health Organization. (2014). WHO: Ebola response roadmap situation report 15 October 2014. Yozwiak, N. L., Schaffner, S. F., & Sabeti, P. C. (2015). Data sharing: Make outbreak research open access. Nature News, 518(7540), 477.

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