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PUBH6008 Leadership In Healthcare

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PUBH6008 Leadership In Healthcare Question 1. What did I learn today? Was the content new or something that I already knew? Specify the content and give examples i.e. of where your learnt about them. Specify content which was new. 2. What major new insights came out of the module this week? Specifically, what did the material mean to you?   3. How can the information learned be applied to your daily life? i.e. think about how you are going to use knew knowledge (leadership concepts and theories), how you are going to adopt new leadership skills, attitudes, and practices. This is probably one of the most important aspects for this assignment. The section is asking you to engage with the concepts intellectually at a deeper level and integrate what you have learnt from the unit into your own ways of acting, doing and thinking. For example, at the beginning of the unit, you must have had some expectations or goals for participating in this unit. And remember from my introduction, I mentioned that taking a leadership education unit/program is part of your own leadership development. This is where you will need to showcase your own on-going leadership development in your life course after completing the unit for academic purposes. Answer Reflective Journal: Leadership In Nursing Introduction At the beginning of this unit, I believe that my score as an effective leadership was average. In this regard, my goal at the start of this unit was to develop and improve my leadership skills at the end of this unit. Therefore, the main reason why I needed to take this unit was to sharpen my leadership skills and to enable me to be an effective nursing leader in my future career as a nursing practitioner. In this regard, it was my expectation to receive in-depth insight on leadership entails. I expected to go through leadership seminars and workshops that would enhance my skills and knowledge as a nursing leader. I also expected to meet some of the successful nurse leaders in the country. I was impressed at the manner in which we studied this course. The instructor developed an excellent lesson plan consisting of class lectures where, groups presentations, reflection tasks, individual assignments, and exams. The course materials were easily available for students via the course blackboard. The ease of accessing the course materials enhanced my learning because I could access the unit material even in remote locations. The class discussions, group presentations, and the reflective tasks provided me with in-depth insight on leadership in healthcare, and so studying the course was very easy, interesting, and informative. In line with these aspects, this paper is going to provide a reflection on this unit of leadership in healthcare. This reflection is based on the weekly reflective journal that I recorded after every module throughout this unit. Therefore the purpose of this paper is going to reflect on the entire unit, the new things that I learned about leadership in healthcare, my growth and development in as an aspiring nurse leader, the challenges that I encountered during this unit, and some of the action steps to improve my leadership. My reflective task was informed by the Atkins and Murphy model of reflection that enables one to reflect upon a learning session in a cyclic manner as illustrated in figure 1 below.                                                                                                                         Figure 1: Retrieved from, Based on the above reflective model, I examined each lesson identified and recorded the new things that I learned including my opinion and feelings towards them after every module. I also noted the things that I already knew about the topic and the challenges that I encountered during the module. The challenges revealed my shortcomings as a leader, and therefore, I brainstormed and noted down the appropriate courses of action that I needed to engage in to improve my areas of weaknesses as a leader. In this regard, this reflective model was very instrumental in tracking my growth and development as a future nurse leader. My Opinion On Leadership Initially, I viewed leadership as the task of giving instructions to other individuals to complete given tasks while the one in the leadership position have his hands folded. I believed that a leader is someone who is a separate entity from the rest of the team, one who does not interact with the team members and one who does not get his or her hand dirty by working. However, this unit has given me a totally different insight on what is leadership. In this regard, I have learned that leadership mainly entails that tasks of instilling a positive influence on followers so that they can achieve the goals and objectives that have been set with the involved team (Goodpasture, 2010). I have learned that, to positively influence people, the one in the leadership position needs to motivate and inspire the followers to enable them to successfully undertake their tasks. This is in accordance with the various theories of motivation, for example, the Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, which argues that the leadership should meet particular needs of the followers to motivate them to perform (Yudhvir & Sunita, 2012). For instance, this theory states that a leader should meet the psychological needs of followers, for example, esteem needs and the belongingness need to motivate and inspire them to productivity (Hackman & Ruth, 2007). I have learned that a leader needs to possess effective leadership qualities to provide good leadership to the subordinates (Turner & Müller, 2010). On this basis, I learned that in addition to influencing the followers, there are three other vital elements of leadership. Firstly, leadership exists only where there is a group of followers by whom the one in leadership imposes his power and influence. Secondly, a leader is the one who rises to the occasion during a crisis to offer the desired solution to the subordinates (Winkler, 2010). Finally, leadership entails establishing clear goals and objectives to be achieved by the team members. In the light of the criteria above, a leader should possess creative thinking skills to enable him or her to solve problems in varying circumstances by establishing positive influence on attitudes and beliefs of the subordinates. Leadership should focus on achieving common goals and objectives through the motivation of the followers to a course of action to achieve the desire results. In the third module of this unit, I learned that leadership is distinct from management; however, to be a successful nurse leader, one needs to possess both the skills of leadership and management. This is because the various nursing departments require leadership to remain productive while at the same time, certain situations of crisis and emergency need effective management skills to be solved successfully. According to Whitehead, Weiss, Tappen, 2010), a leader inspires and motivates the subordinates towards a course of action while a manager gives directions to the followers. Leadership is more of persuading as opposed to commanding the people to serve the interest of the larger community through effective communication and control over the followers. This insight will enable to effectively apply leadership and management skills based on the prevailing circumstances. As a nurse leader, I will employ the relevant skills to inspire and motivate my team members to work towards a common goal within my department. Similarly, as a nurse manager, I will apply the management skills in contingency situations. This is because as a manager, I will be expected to provide appropriate directions to my team members to achieve the set goals and objectives within my department (Northouse, 2010). Theories Of Leadership That Describe Me As A Leader And Inform My Leadership Style Personal Trait Leadership Theory The personal trait theory of leadership refers to the leadership that is based on the character and personal traits of the individual in the leadership position (Riaz & Haider, 2010). According to this theory, leaders are born with exceptional skills and knowledge that enables them to have a huge influence on their followers. During this unit, I was able to identify that my personal traits position me to be a leader. Based on my personal traits, I am a leader because I possess skills such as cognitive, physical, and emotional skills that enable to inspire and motivate my followers. According to Derue, Nahrgang, Welman, and Humphrey (2011), the personal traits of a leader enables him or her to express their opinion and position on their followers, and this enables them to motivate, inspire, and influence their followers to the desired direction (Peretomode, 2012).  The possession of excellent cognitive skills enables me to engage in critical thinking and effective problem solving as a nurse leader. Behavioral Leadership Theory According to Bell (2013), the behavioral theory of leadership views leadership as one that originates from the skills and abilities of an individual. This theory argues that leaders are not born; however, they acquire their leadership skills through learning (Griffin, Parker, & Mason, 2010). This theory focuses on what the leader can do. In this regard, this is another theory that describes my leadership style. I am a behavioral leader because I utilize different patterns to lead my followers. As a leader, I am always concerned about achieving the established goals and objectives. I am also a behavioral leader because I am concerned for followers as individual who have their goals. Therefore, my behaviors as a leader are influenced by my skills and abilities to engage in activities that facilitate the achievement of the desired goals and objectives (Truss, Shantz, Soane, Alfes, & Delbridge, 2013). My Leadership Skills And Factors That Influence Me As A Leader Based on the leadership theories that are discussed in the section above, I can conclude that I discovered that I was born a leader; however, I have acquired some of my leadership skills from my experiences, for instance, from the lessons that I have learned in this unit. I was born a leader because of my leadership characteristics, skills, qualities as discussed below. I am born a leader because I possess emotional intelligence helps me to relate well with my team members because it enables me as a leader to show love and core by remaining sensitive to the feelings and emotions of my followers. This has helped to develop healthy relationships with my followers. Similarly, it has enabled me to inspire my followers to develop a close relationship by taking care of one another’s feelings (Thomas, 2011). This will go a long way in my success as a nurse practitioner because it will enable me to show compassion to patients under my care. According to Vroom (2003), nurse practitioners should show compassion to patients to improve their outcome. This is because, through compassion, a nurse can take care of both the intrinsic and extrinsic needs of the patients, hence, improved patient outcome (Bouhali, et al., 2015). Another reason why I am a born leader is because I have the skills of effective decision-making, which is an innate characteristic of a leader (Schaufeli, 2013). Effective decision making is a vital skill that a leader should possess because it helps in providing solutions to the issues and challenges that are affecting the followers. I have applied the skill of effective decision-making skills in my past experiences, for example, when I was the team leader of a group that was marketing some new antibiotics medicine that getting introduced into the market. By that time I was working as an intern with one of the pharmaceutical companies in the country. My effective decision-making skills enabled me to make appropriate decisions that enhanced the sales of the product. I am also a born leader because I am honest and upholds integrity. An innate leader is one that stands for the truth, veracity, and uprightness in regardless of the circumstances (Pandya, 2014). Honesty and integrity are not qualities that can be taught. These skills are important in leadership, particularly in the healthcare setting. The ability to deliver high-quality healthcare services that improve the outcome of patients depends on honesty and integrity. This is because the treatment of a patient depends on the provision of accurate patient history and reports for the development of effective treatment plan. I am a born leader because I am confident in my tasks. The success of leadership depends on the confidence that a leader has in himself, what he does, and say as a leader (Sundaray, 2011). It requires the leader to have confidence so that he can win the trust and loyalty of the followers. As a leader, I have confidence in what I do and what I tell my followers, and therefore, from my words and actions, my followers have been able to gain inspiration and motivation to engage in tasks that facilitate the achievement of the set goals and objectives. I am a born leader because of my creativity skills. As a leader, I can utilize my imagination to generate original ideas that are instrumental in helping my subordinates to achieve the set goals and objective. When my team is stuck in a situation, I can generate creative alternatives and solutions to move the team forward. Despite being a born leader, I have also learned to be a leader through my previous experiences. The first reason why I believe that I have learned to be a leader is that I am flexible and accommodative as a leader. As a leader, one works with diverse individuals from different social and cultural backgrounds (Northouse, 2016). Team members are diverse in terms of race, gender, religion, and educational background. These differences results to different needs and behaviors among followers, however, to achieve a common goal, the leader is required to exercise flexibility and to accommodate all the team members. As a leader, I am able to work with different people, and I am flexible in my activities due to changes that take place in leadership. I am a behavioral leader because of my patterns of leadership. Firstly, I am a leader who is concerned of the tasks that lead to the achievement of the desired goals (Houghton & Yoho, 2005). I place a lot of emphasis on what needs to be done to achieve the objectives of my followers. In this regard, I implement strategies that increase the productivity of my subordinates, and this includes the use of punishment and rewards to promote productivity. The use of rewards is in accordance with the theory of behavior modification that was developed by B. F. Skinner. By rewarding the subordinates for exceptional performance, the followers are motivated and inspired to work towards the achievement of the goals and objectives of the team (Mumford et al., 2000). Punishment also refrains the subordinates from poor performance. I am also a behavioral leader because I employ leadership approach of making decisions in consensus with my subordinates (Bell, 2013). To serve the needs of my subordinates, I normally engage in information exchange and sharing with my team members in order to determine what they need, their attitudes and opinions towards the tasks and what should be done to achieve the desired goals. The Importance Of Understanding The Nature Of Leadership Power And Influence Understanding the nature of power and influence has helped to become a better leader. According to Kotler (1985), power refers to the capacity of a leader to bring change and an influencing effect on the followers, while influence refers to the changing of the attitudes and perceptions of the subordinates. Understanding the nature of power and influence has enabled me to understand the sources of power and influence, and this has helped me to apply different sources of power and influence under different circumstances of leadership. I have learned to use coercive power to discourage laziness and reluctance among my followers and to use reward power to encourage commitment and productivity in my team (McClesky, 2014). I have learned to apply legitimate power to establish my credibility and win the trust and loyalty of my followers as a leader (Bacon, 2011). This unit has helped me to realize the importance of understanding the nature of leadership. Firstly, as an aspiring nurse leader, understanding the nature of leadership has helped identify my strengths and weaknesses. This is because one of the nature of leadership is that leadership comes from personal qualities. In this regard, understanding this has enabled me to learn my strengths and weaknesses not only as an individual but as a leader. Therefore, I have been able to harness my individual strengths to boost my leadership while at the same time working to improve my weaknesses to become a comprehensive leader. Secondly, understanding the nature of leadership has enabled me to prioritize serving my subordinates. This is because leadership only exist because there are followers who are willing to follow (Bacon, 2011). In this regard, I understand that I am a leader only because is a team that is willing to follow my leadership and therefore, I needs to serve their needs. On this basis, I interact with my subordinates, share information and ideas with them to identify their needs to enable me to develop strategies to meets the needs accordingly. This has also helped me to formulate a clear vision, goals, and objectives for my followers. Thirdly, understanding the nature of leadership has helped to understand my roles and responsibilities as a leader, and this has boosted my leadership skills. For example, it has helped me to be a source of motivation and inspiration to my subordinates. According to Chiocchio, Kelloway, and Hobbs (2015), it is the role of a leader to inspire and motivate my followers to a course of action to achieve the targets that they would not have achieved normally. Understanding this has helped to devise ways to motivate my followers and successful leadership. Incident Where My Attempt To Implement Change Failed One incident where my attempt to implement and sustain change is when I was working as an intern at one of the health facilities the New South Wales. I was the leader of a team of five interns working in the ward of the involved health care facility. In the healthcare facility, there was a challenge of accurate patient record keeping and information sharing among the care providers. Therefore, it was difficult for us as the interns when we arrived for morning or evening shifts. To address this issue, I advocated for the improvement of information sharing among care providers to ensure accuracy in patients’ records and to facilitate the delivery of high-quality healthcare services that improve patient outcome. I recommended action steps which included improved collaboration between RNPs and us as interns. I also recommended brief meetings to be held between nurses who are leaving their shift and those who are coming in for the next shift to ensure smooth transition and updates on patient progress. My recommendations for change were implemented for the first two weeks before a lack of commitment began to emerge among the senior members of staff. As the team leader, I did my best to follow up on the activity to ensure that this new course of action was implemented; however, the lack of commitment from the senior team members led to the failure of change process (Coleman & MacNicol, 2015). I realized that the failure to implement and sustain the change process was due to the lack of employee engagement within the entire health care facility that I was involved in.  I also never involved the management of the healthcare facility that I was working for. In this regard, to ensure future success under the same circumstances, I will involve the strategic management of the healthcare organization that I will work. This is because I only introduced the change process to my fellow employees (Kumar, 2012). In future, I will introduce the idea and concept of change to the management and inform them on the role of improving employee engagement. According to Dajani (2015), employee engagement facilitates commitment and dedication at the workplace, and hence, increases employee productivity. I will recommend the management to employ employee engagement strategies such as creating of teamwork and training, enhancing two-way communication, and monitoring of employees. This will facilitate collaboration and information sharing. My Leadership Development With regards to leadership development, I have made tremendous improvements. At the beginning of this unit, I was at the second level of the stage of leadership, is known as “permission.” The permission stage refers to a state where the one in a leadership position is only able to form close relationship win the trust and work with followers (Latham, 2013). Initially, my leadership only entailed forming a team with my followers. However, after undertaking this unit, I have developed to the next stage, and currently, I am at the production stage of leadership development. Right now, I am able to motivate and inspire my followers to get tasks completed in the right way. Right now, in addition to building effective relationships with my followers, I have the ability to use my power and influence to bring about a change in the perception and attitudes of my subordinates and to inspire and motivate them to action to achieve the set goals and objectives. This is not the stage I want to remain at as a leader. I want to move to the people development stage and pinnacle stage. The people development stage will enable me to help my followers to grow and develop their leadership skills while the pinnacle rising to the pinnacle stage of development will help me as a leader to win the trust and loyalty of my followers because of what I have done and enabled them to achieve. To rise to the people development and pinnacle level, I will dedicate myself to the development of new leaders among my followers. Here, I will engage in the identification and nurturing of the leadership skills among my followers. To reach the pinnacle level, I will focus on creating opportunities for my followers. Here, I will set clear goals and objectives and motivate my followers to work towards the achievement of the set goals and objectives in order to leave a legacy behind. It is on this basis that my subordinates will follow me as a result of what I have done and achieved. Conclusion In summary, this unit has helped develop my knowledge and skills as a nurse leader. The leadership theories that describe me best are trait and leadership theory. Based on this, I am born a leader; however, I have learned some leadership skills in my previous experiences. My expectation remained the same throughout this unit because I expected to improve my leadership skills and that is what each module helped me to achieve. Therefore, I can gladly state that this module helped me to meet my expectation. To ensure a continued development of my leadership, I will take part in seminars and leadership training and development workshops to enhance my leadership skills and knowledge as a nurse leader. References Bacon, T. R. (2011). The Elements of Power: Lessons on Leadership and Influence. New York, NY: AMACOM. Bell, R. M. (2013). Charismatic Leadership Case Study with Ronald Reagan as Exemplar. Emerging Leadership Journeys, 6(1), 66-74. Bouhali, al. (2015). Leader Roles for Innovation: Strategic Thinking and Planning. Procedia-Social and behavioural sciences, 181, 72-78. Chiocchio, F., Kelloway, E., & Hobbs, B. (2015). The Psychology and Management of Project Teams. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Coleman, S. & MacNicol, D. (2015). Project Leadership. Farnham, Surrey, UK Burlington, VT: Gower. Dajani, M. A. Z. (2015). The Impact of Employee Engagement on Job Performance and Organisational Commitment in the Egyptian Banking Sector. Journal of Business and Management Sciences, 3(5), 138-147. Derue, D. S., Nahrgang, J., Welman, N., Humphrey, S. E. (2011). Trait and behavioural Theories of leadership: an integration and Meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Personnel psychology, 64(1), 7-52. Goodpasture, J. (2010). Project Management the Agile Way: Making it Work in the Enterprise. Ft. Lauderdale, FL: J. Ross Publishing. Griffin, M. A., Parker, S. K. and Mason, C. M. (2010). Leader vision and the development of adaptive and proactive performance: a longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(1), 174-182. Hackman, J. R.  & Ruth, W. (2007). Asking the right questions about leadership: Discussion and conclusions. American Psychologist, 62(1), 43-47. Houghton, J. D., & Yoho, S. K. (2005). Toward a Contingency Model of Leadership and Psychological Empowerment: When Should Self-Leadership Be Encouraged? Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 11(4), 66-78. Kotler, J. P. (1985). Power and Influence. New York, NY: Free Press. Kumar, V. (2012). Impact of performance appraisal justice on employee engagement: a study of Indian professionals. Employee Relations, 35(1), 61-78. Latham, G. P. (2013). Introduction to the Special Issue of the Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies. Journal of leadership and organizational studies, 20(1), 1-5. McClesky, J. A. (2014). Situational, Transformational, and Transactional Leadership and Leadership Development. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly, 5(4), 117-125. Mumford, M. D. et al. (2000). Patterns of leader characteristics: Implications for performance and development. Leadership Quarterly, 11(1), 116-130. Northouse, P. G. (2010). Leadership: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Northouse, P. G. (2016). Leadership: Theory and practice. 7th ed. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications. Pandya, K. D. (2014). The Key Competencies of Project Leader beyond the Essential Technical Capabilities. IUP Journal of Knowledge Management, 12(4), 39-48. Peretomode, O. (2012). Situational and Contingency Theories of Leadership: Are They the Same? IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 4(3), 13-17. Riaz, A. & Haider, M. H. (2010). Role of transformational and transactional leadership on job satisfaction and career satisfaction. Business and Economic Horizons, 1(1), 29-38. Schaufeli, W. B. (2013). What is engagement? In C. Truss, K. Alfes, R. Delbridge, A. Schantz & E. Soan (Eds.). Employment Engagement in Theory and Practice. London: Routledge. Sundaray, B. (2011). Employee Engagement: A Driver of Organizational Effectiveness’, European Journal of Business of Management, 3(8), 53- 60. Thomas, J. X. H. C. (2011). How can leaders achieve high employee engagement? Leadrship & Organization Development Journal, 32(4), 399-416. Truss, C., Shantz, A., Soane, E., Alfes, K. & Delbridge, R. (2013). Employee engagement, organisational performance and individual well-being: exploring the evidence, developing the theory. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(14), 2657-2669. Turner, J. & Müller, R. (2010). Project-Oriented Leadership. Farnham, Surrey, UK Burlington, VT: Gower Publishing, Ltd. Vroom, V. (2003). Educating Managers for Decision Making and Leadership. Management Decision, 41(10), 968-978. Whitehead, D. K., Weiss, S. A., Tappen, R. M. (2010). Essentials of nursing leadership and management. (5th Ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis Company. Winkler, I. (2010). Contemporary Leadership Theories: Enhancing the Understanding of the Complexity, Subjectivity and Dynamic of Leadership. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag. Yudhvir, M. R. and Sunita, M. S. (2012). Employee’s motivation: theories and perspectives. Asian Journal of Multidimensional Research, 1(2), 56-64.

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