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PUBH6300 Public Health Question: Choose one of the following health issues Racial/Religious Discrimination Drug Addiction/Substance abuse Domestic violence Diarrhoea/ Malnutrition Depression Social inclusion/Social Support Suicide Road Accidents Sexually Transmitted Diseases Cardiovascular disease Social isolation Identify a particular population that is affected by this health issue for example: men, women, youth, retirees and senior citizens, a racial or ethnic minority, GLBT community, lower SES groups. You may choose a combination of these for example: children from lower SES groups, Aboriginal men, or low caste Indian women. Describe your chosen health problem and state how it is affecting the population you have identified using evidence from the literature Identify and discuss the social determinants of the health problem for the population you have identified. You must use evidence from the literature to support your discussion . Identify the potential stakeholders that you would need to work with in order to address the social determinants of the health problem for this specific population to reduce the risk of these negative health impacts. You will be assessed using the marking rubric on the next page. It is strongly advised that you consult the marking rubric submitting your assessment to ensure you have completed all sections of the assessment. However this checklist may also be helpful: Do you state the question at the beginning? Have you included an introduction and brief description of the health problem? Have you explained the extent to which the population is affected by the health issue? (Note you need to demonstrate that the population you have chosen is appropriate i.e. that this population is affected by the health problem more than the general population and provide evidence to support this). Have you explained using the social determinants of health why your population is vulnerable to the health issue? Have you identified the relevant stakeholders that would be required to address the health problem for this population and provided evidence to support your stakeholder recommendations? Have you provided evidence to support your various discussion points and position? Answer: Introduction: The term drug has currently been provided with another intention. It was used initially to mean medicine. Nevertheless, today the term drug implies prescription, as well as the lethal opiates that incorporate heroin, cocaine, darker sugar, and different information (Myers, 2016). These drugs have their abhorrent costs for the consciousness and cells of the body for the addicts. Youths are the major exceedingly dreadful casualties of shades of malice of Drug Addiction. Drug Addiction likewise called substance use confusion is a mind malady (Hawkins, & Catalano, 2012). The junkie ends up plainly reliant on the drug. It is viewed as a cerebrum infection since it changes the structure and working of the mind (Jessor & Jessor, 2017). In some cases, drug fixation is additionally alluded to as drug reliance since the junkie creates reliance or compulsion for a specific drug (Molnar et al., 2013). The reasons why a youngster gets dependent on these unsafe drugs are numerous. Interests, want for joy, social banishment, mental crevice, absence of independence are a portion of the reasons why these young turns into a drug fanatic. Absence of fearlessness that is feeling of inadequacy has been set apart as reason for one’s turning into a drug fanatic. Peer weight, over the top anxiety, absence of parental contribution in youngster’s exercises, are among the main sources for drug compulsion among youth and adolescent individuals (Hawkins & Catalano, 2012). The subject of drug enslavement is genuine with reference to the fact that the addicts for the most part youthful students, the future residents of a country that depends on the future generation for its development (O’Malley & Wagenaar, 2014). In this way, it is important to ensure that the youth are protected from the drug addiction as much as possible. Restoration of the youthful drug addicts is a noteworthy social issue (Bachman et al.,  2015). The need of raising the level of awareness of self through legitimate instruction has been recommended as an appropriate stride. The individuals who in this manner end up plainly ready to conquer their fixation can guide other youthful addicts. The need of shaping a solid domain where the requirements of these adolescent can be met is similarly essential (Wallace & Forman, 2013). The exchanging of hurtful drugs, for example, cocoa, opium, and so on ought to be appropriately controlled. Worldwide activities ought to be taken to deny assembling of such hurtful drugs. Social Determinants Of Drug Addiction Social determinants of drug use can be encouraged by both social and political structures. These social structures incorporate political and financial minimization, persecution, preference, segregation, unemployment, neediness and neighborhood weakness (Myers, 2016). Social structures; including general and drug particular standards, values, convictions, parts, ideas and desires racial impression of drug use, and in addition gendered contrasts in dependence and drug sort use can likewise go about as determinants of drug use (Molnar et l., 2013). Examination of the chronicled setting of drug utilization and it’s between sections with wrongdoing and government arrangement have a noteworthy effect in who are devouring drugs and who is benefitting from their utilization. When managing the subject of unlawful drug use, there are two primary sorts of drug clients: Those who use hard drugs, and the individuals who use soft drugs. The class of hard drugs basically alludes to sedatives and the greater part of its subsidiaries (Hawkins & Catalano, 2012). A few cases of normal hard drugs are heroin, Vicodin, methamphetamine, and cocaine. Some basic illustrations incorporate marijuana and LSD. The soft drug qualities are moderately mellow and are famously accepted to be non-addicting (Bachman et al., 2015). A great part of the examination demonstrates that drug use may increment and support criminal conduct, albeit some exploration infers that drug use and wrongdoing have an intricate, recursive relationship and that drug use is not generally straightforwardly included in wrongdoing causation (Kandel, 2015). A standout amongst the most widely recognized and hazardous courses to drug use are misconduct. Misconduct may first prompt substance use and afterward to issue tranquilize taking, or may lead straightforwardly to issue sedate taking (Wallace & Forman, 2013). Once an individual achieves the level of Criminality through wrongdoing and drug use, they open themselves up to numerous unsafe mental attributes of guiltiness, for example, control, impulsivity, low resilience for disappointment, the penchant and the requirement for risk or excite chasing, poor important considering, poor choice era, poor utilization of recreation time, alliance as far as social character with the criminal class, simple disappointment or weariness with ordinary movement like the requirement for greater fervor or adrenal reliance (Molnar et al, 2013). Racial impressions of drug use come from group impacts, relational impacts, and individual impacts that have a place with a racial framework (Weinstock, Berman & Cates, 2014). The way of a racial framework encourages the creation and upkeep of key level contrasts in the social states of individuals classified as Black or White. An inclination additionally exists to apply diverse standardizing measures to the sorts of drugs used and to trust that blacks are to a great extent in charge of drug trafficking (O’Malley & Wagenaar, 2014). Subsequently, medicate law authorization might be ethnically skewed, arrangements may disregard the interesting examples that describe the drug emergency in various groups, and treatment methods may not be intended for the particular needs of various gatherings (Myers, 2016). In earlier years, the subject of drug use was for the most part observed a male overwhelming issue because of the regular relationship of guys and liquor abuse, which was conveyed to light amid the seasons of disallowance (Pate, Trost, Levin, & Dowda, 2012). Consequently, later concentration around ladies’ drug use has demonstrated some summed up gendered contrasts with respect to the subject of drug use. Ladies regularly start using substances later than do men, are firmly impacted by life partners or lovers to use, report distinctive purposes behind keeping up the utilization of the substances, and enter treatment prior over the span of their diseases than do men (Jessor & Jessor, 2017). Imperatively, ladies likewise have a fundamentally higher commonness of comorbid psychiatric issue, for example, despondency and uneasiness, than do men, and these scatters ordinarily originate before the onset of substance-mishandle issues (Weinstock, Berman, & Cates, 2014). In spite of the fact that drug clients are constantly vilified and ignored in public, it was realized that the reaction of the society contrasts between sexual orientations (Jessor & Jessor, 2017). The outcome for male drug clients tends to manipulate the profession, and consequences are all the more intensely felt within the entire population (Eaton et al, 2013). Men have also been realized to possess more regular and broad experiences with criminal activities in regards to their drug utilization. Ladies have higher probabilities of being trashed privately, where the consequences of their drug manhandle tend to affect the conjugal status or other family matters that might result into serious problems for them (Eaton et al., 2012). The situation might lead to their separation among other effects. This type of slander happens with ladies as a result of assumptions of an obligation among the female to remain sound for the methods of propagation (Pate et al., 2012). Higher rates of ladies were found to ascribe their drug use to traumatic situations that took place before in their lives as opposed to the case of the men. When all aspects of drugs are considered, ladies have a littler aggregate sum of water in their body (Kandel, 2015). This permits drugs, especially liquor to accomplish higher focuses in their circulation system than do men in the wake of controlling equivalent measures of drugs, or drinking identical measures of liquor. Critical sex contrasts were seen with respect to the utilization of nicotine (Eaton et al., 2012). Ladies when all is said in done smoke fewer cigarettes than do men however process nicotine all the more gradually; along these lines, nicotine levels in the body are comparable in male and female smokers (Myers, 2016). Natural contrasts have likewise been recorded with respect to the utilization of cocaine. Relevant Stakeholders For Drug Addiction Control Concerning drug use, there are various stakeholders to deal with while handling the problem of drug addiction. The first stakeholders would be the workers of drug and alcohol (Weinstock, Berman, & Cates, 2014). The people working within the plants where alcohol and other drugs are prepared have the responsibility to control the use of the drugs. The drug workers could influence the amount of substance released for use by the public or provide certain information relevant to the control of the diseases (Kandel, 2017). The police would also be important stakeholders to contact as they would help in minimizing the instances of drug addiction within the society. Through law enforcement, It would be possible for the police to control addiction through arrests and other possible means (Molnar et al., 2013). The residents of the areas where the youth are notorious drug addicts could also play a role in controlling the addiction to the harmful substance (Newcomb, Maddahian, & Bentler, 2016). The drugs users and their representatives like parents would also play a part in controlling the situation. The lawyers within the region where youth are drug addicts would also help through proposing or formulating certain kinds of laws that would help in controlling the rates of drug use that might lead to addiction (Kandel, 2015). The local government officers would also be involved in the case as they would be required to devise certain strategies and means by which the use of the illegal drugs would be abolished or controlled completely (Kandel, 2017). The other stakeholders would be the youth workers and the other young people they might be working with. The youths would play an important part in creating awareness among them concerning the use of the drugs. The pharmacists have been picked by researchers as other important stakeholders in controlling drug use as they are directly involved in the use of most drugs. The various drugs purchased from the pharmacies would be easy to control by the pharmacists who would decide on who to sell to and the amounts of substance appropriate for the condition in question (Weinstock, Berman, & Cates, 2014). The school teachers at any level of education should also take responsibility by ensuring that among the lessons provided, the use of drugs is incorporated to protect the students from the use of drugs. The health practitioners are other people who should help in controlling substance abuse trough creating awareness over the health effects of the drugs to people (Myers, 2016). The youth should be the target of the various groups while handling health matters concerning drug addiction. The other stakeholders who should take responsibility are the traders within the region. The traders have the control on the sale of various commodities within the market. Therefore, the traders should ensure that all the illegal drugs are not availed in the market in order to protect the youth from possible addiction (Pate et al., 2012). Conclusion In conclusion, drug addiction is a common problem in the society today. The problem is common among the youth especially because of various reasons. Researchers have also realized that there are certain social factors that lead to drug addiction in most societies today (Weinstock, Berman, & Cates, 2014). The control of the social factors would minimize the use and addiction to the various illegal drugs that are common in the society today. In the measures taken to control drug addiction, there are various stakeholders who should be consulted (Kandel, 2015). The stakeholders including the police and drug users among other stakeholders have a role to play in controlling drug addiction. References Bachman, J. G., Wallace Jr, J. M., O’Malley, P. M., Johnston, L. D., Kurth, C. L., & Neighbors, H. W. (2015). Racial/Ethnic differences in smoking, drinking, and illicit drug use among American high school seniors, 1976-89. American Journal of Public Health, 81(3), 372-377. Eaton, D. K., Kann, L., Kinchen, S., Shanklin, S., Flint, K. H., Hawkins, J., … & Whittle, L. (2012). Youth risk behavior surveillance-United States, 2011. Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Surveillance summaries (Washington, DC: 2002), 61(4), 1-162. Eaton, D. K., Kann, L., Kinchen, S., Shanklin, S., Ross, J., Hawkins, J., … & Lim, C. (2013). Youth risk behavior surveillance-United States, 2009. Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Surveillance summaries (Washington, DC: 2002), 59(5), 1-142. Hawkins, J. D., & Catalano Jr, R. F. (2012). Communities that care: Action for drug abuse prevention. Jossey-Bass. Jessor, R., & Jessor, S. L. (2017). Problem behavior and psychosocial development: A longitudinal study of youth. Kandel, D. (2015). Stages in adolescent involvement in drug use. Science, 190(4217), 912-914. Kandel, D. B. (2017). Drug and drinking behavior among youth. Annual review of sociology, 6(1), 235-285. Molnar, B. E., Shade, S. B., Kral, A. H., Booth, R. E., & Watters, J. K. (2013). Suicidal behavior and sexual/physical abuse among street youth. Child abuse & neglect, 22(3), 213-222. Myers, V. (2016). Drug use among minority youth. Addictive diseases, 3(2), 187-196. Newcomb, M. D., Maddahian, E., & Bentler, P. M. (2016). Risk factors for drug use among adolescents: concurrent and longitudinal analyses. American Journal of Public Health, 76(5), 525-531. O’Malley, P. M., & Wagenaar, A. C. (2014). Effects of minimum drinking age laws on alcohol use, related behaviors and traffic crash involvement among American youth: 1976-1987. Journal of studies on Alcohol, 52(5), 478-491. Pate, R. R., Trost, S. G., Levin, S., & Dowda, M. (2012). Sports participation and health-related behaviors among US youth. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine, 154(9), 904-911. Wallace Jr, J. M., & Forman, T. A. (2013). Religion’s role in promoting health and reducing risk among American youth. Health Education & Behavior, 25(6), 721-741. Weinstock, H., Berman, S., & Cates, W. (2014). Sexually transmitted diseases among American youth: incidence and prevalence estimates. Perspectives on sexual and reproductive health, 36(1), 6-10.

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