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PUBH7027 Introduction To Environmental Health

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PUBH7027 Introduction To Environmental Health Question: In this article, the authors discuss factors influencing waste management in select countries in Africa, Asia and Central and South America. Using Table 1 of the article, please select one country (i.e. Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, etc.) or your own country (please describe) that you would like to investigate in more detail regarding waste management policies. Using information from the required article and at least 2 additional resources, please provide answers to the following questions. 1.For your chosen country, please describe the primary waste management systems in place. How is solid waste handled, and what are the current policies?    2.For your chosen country, try to identify who are the “recognized” stakeholders (or who you think they are, if this is not clear). What is their role in waste management?  3.Provide at least 2 strategies to help improve current waste management practices in your selected country. Answer: 1.Waste management in Kenya is mandated to the local authorities. However, the local authorities have proven to lack sufficient capacity and the know how to establish proper waste management systems. In Kenya, there is inefficient waste collection and disposal systems (Munala & Moirongo, 2017). This is reflected as nearly half of the population is not served by waste collection services (Munala & Moirongo, 2017). In other areas, waste collected is transferred to an open dumpsite or otherwise burnt publicly. Transportation of waste takes the form of use of open trucks and hand carts which have also contributed to further littering of the environment (Munala & Moirongo, 2017) Waste is generated across the household, market, towns, cities, industrial zones and institutions. There is limited household waste segregation in all those areas. Informal groups are often tasked with the collection and recovery of recyclable waste (Njoroge, Kimani & Ndunge, 2014). Though most of the waste is collected by the county government, there are private companies which operate in residential areas at a fee. In the low income and informal settlements high reliance is on the citizens and the civil society and NGO community for collection of waste (Njoroge, Kimani & Ndunge, 2014). NEMA issues licenses to the firms and individuals that transport waste however a majority do not follow the rules accorded to them (Njoroge, Kimani & Ndunge, 2014). NEMA stands for National Environment Management Authority (Njoroge, Kimani & Ndunge, 2014). Waste treatment are still underdeveloped and have not achieved optimal operations. Workers who man these facilities do not have proper training on how to manage them well (Kirama & Mayo, 2016). 2. In Kenya one if the stakeholders is the Ministry of Environment, Water and Natural Resources whose work is to give policy direction on solid waste management initiatives of the entire country (Njoroge, Kimani & Ndunge, 2014) The other stakeholder is NEMA whose function is to formulate policies and legislations in order to achieve a sustainable level of waste management as well as dissemination of information on the regulatory requirements of proper waste management to the public (Nigatu, Haregu, Mberu, & Ziraba, 2016) The civil society and the NGOs also have a role to play in supporting solid waste management initiatives in the country and advocate for the rights of the country’s citizens in receiving proper waste management services (Nigatu, Haregu, Mberu, & Ziraba, 2016) The private sector has a role in the development of effective and efficient waste management facilities in their premises as well as an undertaking of corporate social responsibility on waste management solutions (Njoroge, Kimani & Ndunge, 2014 It is the role of the National treasury to provide adequate funding to the government agencies involved in the development and promotion of waste management initiatives (Njoroge, Kimani & Ndunge, 2014) It is the role of the citizens to have proper attitudes when it comes to waste management for instance not littering just because someone else will clean it up and be focused on finding solutions to the same (United Nations Publications, 2015). 3.One way of improving waste management practices in Kenya is increase of knowledge and awareness. There is importance to educate the public on a clean and healthy environment this is able to enable the citizens to have a conscious approach to waste management and reduce practices such as littering and illegal dumping (Kirama & Mayo, 2016). Another strategy is increasing the number of dustbins available to the public. One of the challenges of waste management in Kenya is that the public lack sufficient places to dump their litter leading them to throw them on the ground (Kirama & Mayo, 2016).. The country government should increase the availability of dustbins available to the public (Nigat & Ziraba, 2016) Another strategy includes the regulatory bodies NEMA and the county government undertaking punitive measures on individuals and firms who do not follow the regulation (Kirama & Mayo, 2016).. Because of enforcement of the law less people will be inclined to have poor waste management practices (Kirama  & Mayo, 2016).. High fines and penalties should be imposed on individuals who do not follow the law (Blackman, 2016). References Blackman Jr, W. C. (2016). Basic hazardous waste management. Crc Press. Kirama, A., & Mayo, A. W. (2016). Challenges and prospects of private sector participation in solid waste management in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania. Habitat International, 53, 195-205. Munala  G., & Moirongo, B. O. (2017). The need for an integrated solid waste management in Kisumu, Kenya. Mwangi, H. M., Sira, F. N., & Kaluli, W. (2017). Sustainable solid waste management strategies in Juja, Kenya. Nigatu, T., Haregu, B., Mberu, A., & Ziraba, K. (2016). Evolution of Solid Waste Management Policy Landscape in Kenya: Analysis of evolvement of policy priorities and strategies. Njoroge, B. N. K., Kimani, M., & Ndunge, D. (2014). Review of municipal solid waste management: A case study of Nairobi, Kenya. International Journal of Engineering and Science, 4(2), 16-20. United Nations Publications (Ed.). (2015). Guidelines for national waste management strategies: Moving from challenges to opportunities. UN.

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