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PUN219 Leadership Of Quality And Safety In Health

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PUN219 Leadership Of Quality And Safety In Health Question: Write a report on Human Factors Affecting Quality and Safety of Healthcare Provision. Answer: It is indeed true that the various human factors affecting the performance of work have a significant impact on quality of care outputted by individual nurses as well as patient safety. Human factors are the job, organizational and environmental factors, as well as individual human characteristics that determine the behavior of people in the workplace (Salvendy, 2012). While conducting human reliability assessments, safety specialists have relied a lot on human factors to taxonomically categorize the causing factors of accidents and incidents, as well as the various factors that shape performance. It is also by understanding various human factors that organizations are able to able to organize various functionality processes such as engineering, procedures, and training. This is also known as human factors engineering where information relating to these factors is implemented to design the tools, systems, machines, environment, tasks, and jobs which will be effective, safe, and comfortable for human use (Marek, Karwowski, Frankowicz, Kantola, & Zgaga, 2014). It is, therefore, a matter of great necessity that nurses become aware of the human factors that could affect their performance in the workplace. Subsequently, they should develop techniques to adjust themselves against those factors that will negatively affect their output while simultaneously acknowledging the factors that will impact their work positively. This essay is, therefore, an inscription of the various human factors that affect the performance of work and how the factors interrelate with the safety and quality of healthcare provision. Various scholars have put forth many human factors that affect the performance of work. It is worth noting that the influence of these factors could produce either a positive or negative impact on the performance of work. Training is an aspect of the planned organizational activity that greatly influence the levels of output of a workforce (Grove, 2015). When employees are not aware of the exact roles they are supposed to undertake in their workplaces, or how they are supposed to perform their duties, poor performance is inevitable. Training, therefore, plays a great role in bringing clarity on the job details. When all employees are clearly aware of their specific individual roles, duplication of efforts is reduced and thus saving on energy. Additionally, time spent correcting errors that arise from lack of awareness of roles is also reduced. Training also plays a significant role in reducing the cost of maintenance of plant and equipment. This is because well-trained employees are aware of how to operate and take care of working tools availed to them and thus minimal cases of breakdowns (Buckley & Caple, 2002). Additionally, when employees are aware of their roles and procedures of work in an entity, job satisfaction as well as self-esteem increases. Subsequently, the productivity of the workforce is greatly improved. The working environment is another human factor known to have both a positive and negative impact on the work performance of employees. This is the closest surrounding of an employee while in the workplace that can be manipulated to suit their needs and requirements for maximum output (Altman & Christensen, 2012). Unsafe and unhealthy workplace environments prevail in a majority of industries. The productivity of employees can be adversely affected by the unsafe environment in health facilities such as workstations that are poorly designed, poor ventilation, too much noise, weak supervisory support, inappropriate lighting, lack of communication, as well as lack of protective gear. When working under in such an environment, employees are exposed to numerous health hazards that could occur in their line of work. Occupational diseases such as suffocation ad ergonomic disorders are most likely to occur. Subsequently, a workplace environment that is poorly planned greatly reduces a worker’s performance and productivity due to an adverse effect on their morale which amounts to lack of job satisfaction and motivation (Carbery & Cross, 2013). The infrastructure of the work environment, as well as the personal motivation of employees, are the key areas of the workplace environment that the management of an entity should focus on improving and maintaining. Another human factor commonly associated with work performance is work and job design. As the most significant function of human resource management, job design involves coming up with the contents, functions, methods, and means of completing the job (Carayon, 2016). Specifications of what tasks are to be undertaken, how and when the tasks are to be undertaken, the number of tasks to be performed, the order in which the tasks are to be performed, the tools and equipment that will be utilized to complete the tasks, and the time frame within which the tasks should be completed are aspects that should be clearly mentioned in a job designed. There are certain job designs and goal settings that can improve performance by being some form of motivation to employees. Jobs that are designed well impact positively the morale of employees and thus imparting job satisfaction. The relationship between organizational values and goals and the expectations of a certain job should be incorporated in a good job design (Carbery & Cross, 2013). To enhance work performance and productivity, employees should always be accorded options to vary their way of completing tasks in line with their work habits, personal needs, and habits. Poorly designed jobs will always result in poor performance, low morale, job dissatisfaction, and poor quality output. Cognitive functions of individual employees are also important human factors that impact their work performance. Attention is the ability of an employee to select and focus on the most relevant stimuli. As a cognitive process, it gives employees the ability to focus on the most relevant detail or specification while performing their work and thus reduces chances of failure (Tiem, Moseley, & Dessinger, 2012). Detection, on the other hand, is the ability to identify some hidden information or lead while in the workplace. This cognitive function enables workers to extract particular information from a large data stream. The information extracted is the most relevant in completing the tasks assigned to them and thus improving their work performance. Further on, perception is the ability to capture, process and retrieve the intended meaning from information that is received in the human sensory organs. This cognitive process is an important aspect of workers’ work life as it is the one that enables them to integrate information and know what is required to be done in the tasks they are undertaking. Poor perception results in a low understanding of requirements and subsequently low performance (Gruszka, Matthews, & Szymura, 2010). Reasoning and judgment refer to the ability of workers think about the information presented to them and decide on the most appropriate course of action to take. Other cognitive functions of similar significance are memory, speech, decision making, and motor control. All human factors that affect the performance of work are directly related to quality and safety in the provision of healthcare. When new health care staff are hired into a healthcare facility, induction training is vital (Levoy, 2007). Nurses, for example, should be made aware of the roles assigned to them and consequently trained on how to perform their duties effectively. It is also during training that various safety measures and standards are emphasized to health workers. As a result, they learn the steps to be adopted during emergencies to ensure patients safety. They also learn how to handle patients safely and in decent ways. Training also helps health personnel to learn how to take care of their own safety (Buckley & Caple, 2002). They develop knowledge and skills on how to protect themselves from any imminent danger that may prevail in their line of work. When nurses and other health personnel are well trained, role conflict is eradicated. Medications errors and near misses are also reduced greatly. Effective and efficient utilization of tools and equipment available also prevails. As a result, maintenance costs are reduced significantly. Existing workforce also require training to update and upgrade their skills and knowledge due to the ever-changing technology and procedures of operations. Working environment also directly impacts the quality and safety of healthcare provided. Nurses and other healthcare personnel are the providers of health care in hospitals and other settings. Their workplace environment must, therefore, be conducive for them to be able to offer quality and safe health care to their clients (Masters, 2015). The workstations in a medical facility should be well designed to provide comfort and maximum mobility space for healthcare personnel in operation. The rooms that they are working in should also be well ventilated to allow sufficient flow of fresh air. Health facilities should be located in areas that are less noisy to prevent noise disturbance to nurses while undertaking their routine activities. Also, healthcare workers should be provided with adequate protection gear such as gloves to protect them from coming in contact with contaminated fluids and other health hazards prevalent in their line of work. Supervisory support should also be availed to health workers to keep them in line with the organizational mission as well as short-term goals (Marek, Karwowski, Frankowicz, Kantola, & Zgaga, 2014). A good working environment increases the morale and job satisfaction of health workers. Consequently, their performance is boosted and thus they provide quality and safe care to patients. To ensure that there are safety and quality provision of health care, jobs should be designed well. All healthcare employees should be given clear descriptions of their jobs entailing the contents, functions, methods, and means of performing them to completion (Borkowski, 2015). It should be clearly specified to them what tasks they are required to perform, how the tasks should be undertaken, the order to be followed in performing the tasks if any, the tools and equipment that will be used to complete the jobs and the time within which they are required to have completed the tasks. Good job designs improve the performance of employees as they are able to develop and implement personal work plans. The ambiguity of roles, as well as duplication of efforts, are also curbed by good job designs. Good work feedbacks are also facilitated and allow the management to know on the areas that need improvements or corrections for the sake of patient and staff safety. Good designs also include rest schedules which ensure that employees have sufficient time to rest. Consequently, the quality of their work output is boosted. Job design also helps the management of healthcare facilities to identify the knowledge and skills required to perform various jobs (Borkowski, 2015). As a result, they are able to source for the right worker who will meet the quality and safety requirements of the job. Further on, cognitive functions of individual healthcare personnel play significant roles in the delivery of safe and quality health care. Workers who are attentive while performing their duties usually capture the most important details of the work they are performing. They are therefore able to apply relevant interventions to ensure that they give the highest quality and safe healthcare when treating conditions (Gruszka, Matthews, & Szymura, 2010). Detection is another cognitive function that enables healthcare staff to improve their performance. This function is very significant to nurses as they are able to detect possible health problems based on a large set of signs and symptoms presented to them. Subsequently, by detecting the true health condition ensures that the health care provided henceforth is of the highest quality and safety. Nurses and other health professionals with a high ability to perceive information play a significant role in providing quality and safe care to patients. This function ensures that health care personnel capture all relevant and useful information that will aid in the provision of the right treatment (Tiem, Moseley, & Dessinger, 2012). As such, quality and safety prevail in the care provided. Reasoning and judgment functions ensure that nurses make the right judgment when deliberating on the right course of action to take in particular situations. Memory affects how health care personnel are able to remember and apply the right model of care to patients and thus determining the quality and safety of the care provided. Conclusively, human factors affecting the performance of work have been directly linked to the quality and safety of care provided in healthcare facilities. Training, which is an aspect of planned organizational activities, have been identified as one human factor affecting the performance of work and subsequently, the safety and quality of healthcare. The working environment is another factor that has been mentioned. It has also been discussed that a conducive working environment is crucial for healthcare to be in a capacity to provide quality and safe care to patients and to themselves. Further on, job design, which entails developing the contents, functions, methods, and means of performing jobs, has been identified as a factor that affects safety and quality of care. Lastly, various cognitive functions have also been discussed in details. The various ways in which they affect work performance, as well as safety and quality of health care, have also been discussed. References Altman, I., & Christensen, K. (2012). Environment and Behavior Studies: Emergence of Intellectual Traditions (illustrated ed.). Springer Science & Business Media. Borkowski, N. (2015). Organizational Behavior, Theory, and Design in Health Care. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Buckley, R., & Caple, J. (2002). The Theory & Practice of Training (illustrated, revised ed.). Kogan Page Publishers. Carayon, P. (2016). Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics in Health Care and Patient Safety (2, illustrated ed.). CRC Press. Carbery, R., & Cross, C. (2013). Human Resource Management: A Concise Introduction. Macmillan International Higher Education. Grove, A. S. (2015). High Output Management. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Gruszka, A., Matthews, G., & Szymura, B. (2010). Handbook of Individual Differences in Cognition: Attention, Memory, and Executive Control (illustrated ed.). Springer Science & Business Media. Levoy, R. P. (2007). 222 Secrets of Hiring, Managing, and Retaining Great Employees in Healthcare Practices. Jones & Bartlett Learning. Marek, T., Karwowski, W., Frankowicz, M., Kantola, J., & Zgaga, P. (2014). Human Factors of a Global Society: A System of Systems Perspective (illustrated ed.). CRC Press. Masters, K. (2015). Role Development in Professional Nursing Practice (illustrated ed.). Kathleen Masters. Salvendy, G. (2012). Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics (illustrated ed.). John Wiley & Sons. Tiem, D. V., Moseley, J. L., & Dessinger, J. C. (2012). Fundamentals of Performance Improvement: Optimizing Results Through People, Process, and Organizations (illustrated, revised ed.). John Wiley & Sons.

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