Calculate the price
your order:

275 words
Approximate price
$ 0.00

SOCA1200 Health Sociology Question: Sociology analyses the social determinants of health and utilises a number of concepts and theories in order to understand health and illness. Draw on two sociological theories to explain the social determinants of health and discuss how this differs from the medical model. Answer: Introduction Health is defined as the fundamental right and a state that encompasses complete psychological, physical and social wellbeing of an individual, in addition to the mere presence of infirmity and disease. Health of persons is also associated with the environment in which they are residing and their capability to integrate and adapt to their life context. The relationship that a person shares with the environment is particularly significant owing to the fact that this form of interaction that summarises the perception of normality, when compared to pathology (Bury, 2013). The sociology of health and illness has the capability of examining and investigating the interaction and correlation between health and the society. The primary objective of sociology is to determine the impact of social life on rates of mortality and morbidity. While medical research might be useful in obtaining statistical data on a disease, having a sociological perspective on particular disease would help in gaining an insight into the external factors increased the likelihood of the individuals to fall ill. Biopsychosocial Model Health psychology is most commonly concerned with the psychology of a plethora of health associated behaviour that encompass healthy eating, relationship with the doctor, beliefs about diseases and the understanding that a patient has on health related information. The biopsychosocial model outlooks health and illness as the direct product of a set of specific behavioural factors (stress, lifestyle, health beliefs), biological characteristics (genetics), and different social conditions (family relationships, cultural influences, social support). This model was proposed in 1977 by Engel and implies that all forms of thoughts, feelings and behaviour are capable of influencing the physical state of a person (Ayers, Franklin & Ring, 2013). He argued with the age old assumption that biological factors of disease and health have the worth of being studied and practiced. This model postulates that social and psychological factors are crucial in influencing the biological functioning of an organism. According to the model, psychological, biological and social factors are believed to exist along a range composed of natural systems. A systematic consideration of the social and psychological factors requires presentation of social sciences. Hence, both natural and social sciences are imperative to medicine. In other words, healthy environments are considered as the beginning point for wellbeing and health and contains different components namely, the physical, cultural, social, and economic environments (Pilgrim, 2015). Responsive parenting provides children with the opportunity to develop healthy identity, and/or interpersonal skills. These skills are commonly comprised of cooperation, communication, and behavioural or emotional regulation. Furthermore, a sense of belonging also comprises of school, work, family and community and is established on strong interpersonal skills that are developed during childhood. The major advantages of this model are based on its awareness of the different levels existing in nature, holism, and inclusiveness of diverse perspectives. The advocates of the biopsychosocial model argue for the obligation to think and decide about treatment of illness via this model (Sarafino & Smith, 2014). They also elaborate on the fact that behavioural and social factors play an understandable and foremost role in the overall human health such as, poor eating habits obesity, alcoholism, smoking, stress, depression, and anxiety. Historically, some of the popular theories such as, nature versus nurture theory postulated that any one of the biological, social or psychological factors are adequate to alter the course of development. However, this biopsychosocial model argues that development of health and an onset of illness can be defined as an interplay between the genetic makeup, mental health, and sociocultural environment, which in turn determine the health-related outcomes (Campbell & Rohrbaugh, 2013). Some of the common biological effects on health and illness consist of infections, genetics, nutrition, physical trauma, toxins and hormones. Most of the disorders are found to occur due to an increase in genetic susceptibility. Development of schizophrenia in one of the monozygotic twins increases the chance of the other twin to suffer from the disease by manifolds (Kahn & Keefe, 2013). Some of the psychological components of the model comprise of negative thinking, emotional turmoil and lack of self-control. Conversely, poor socioeconomic status, religious orthodox nature and culture also predispose a person to develop certain illness (Smith et al., 2013). This is in distinction with the medical model that implied a reductionist method to understand health problems. It primarily viewed health and illness in mechanical terms and comprised of history, complaint, ancillary tests, physical examination, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Another distinction with the biopsychosocial model is that the medical model considered signs and symptoms as the major indicators of an underlying physiological abnormality present within a person (Deacon, 2013). The medical model is extremely useful for health researchers, with the intent of entering a brightened course between naïve realism and radical social constructivism. Conflict Theory The conflict theory was proposed by Karl Marx and holds the claim that the society exists in a condition of perpetual conflict due to competition for limited or reduced resources. The theory draws attention to different power differentials namely class conflict and also forms a contrast with ideologies that are historically dominant. In other words, the conflict theory can be defined as some macro-oriented paradigm that considers the society as an area of inequality, which subsequently results in the development of clashes and subsequent social changes. Some of the key concepts in this perspective elaborate on the fact that the society is designed in ways that benefits few people at the cost of the majority, and different social factors such as, sex race, age, class, are associated to social inequality (Burrell & Morgan, 2017). The theory was proposed at a time when there was an increase in capitalism in Europe and the upper classes were in possession of more resources, which in turn made the impose a set of rules over the inferior class. According to this theory, social inequality symbolises and exemplifies the quality of healthcare services and health outcomes of the people residing in the society. People belonging to poor and disadvantaged social backgrounds show an increased likelihood of becoming ill and receiving inadequate healthcare services. With the aim of partially increasing their incomes, physicians have time and again tried to resist medicine practice and describe social harms as medical difficulties. Thus, this conflict approach most commonly underlines on the inequalities that exist in healthcare access, its delivery and the well-being of people. Social inequalities are defined along the lines of race, gender, social class, and ethnicity and are directly manifested in terms of health related quality of life (Weiss & Lonnquist, 2017). Individuals from the disadvantaged social class are more vulnerable to fall ill, and upon getting affected, the presence of inadequate treatment services makes their situation more difficult and worsens the situation. Thus, the theory is grounded on evidences of vast disparities in access to healthcare. The conflict theory also criticises the efforts that have been taken by different medical practitioners over the years, with the aim of controlling the practice of the medical field. On one hand, they hold the belief that medical professionals are most qualified and have the capability of diagnosing problems and subsequently ensuing the treatment that follows (Luhmann, Baecker, & Gilgen, 2013). On the other hand, it has also been recognised by the physicians that there will be an improvement in the financial status, following their success in typifying the social problems in the medical domain, and monopolising their treatment. Therefore, power struggles that occur over control of resources of the society and the world, portray the conflict viewpoint. This conflict might have legal, political, economic, or familial realms. The prevalence of chronic diseases increases with age over 65 years, and people living longer must resort to medical institutions for their optimal health and wellbeing (Ritzer & Stepnisky, 2017). Conversely, the primary reason that contributes to the increased longevity of women, in comparison to men is the fact that the latter participates in occupations that take a toll on their health, in addition to increased rates of addiction. The role of race can be illustrated by the fact that African Americans have more mortality rates from pneumonia, heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer. This is in complete contrast with the biomedical model that considers health to constitute the freedom from pain, disease and/or defects, thereby making a normal person healthy. The difference with the biomedical model of health can be illustrated by the fact that the latter primarily focuses on biological factors and eliminates the role of environmental, psychological, and social influences on health. It is measured as the mainstay approach for healthcare specialists in Western countries, to detect and treat an illness (Halfon et al., 2014). Owing to the fact that the biomedical model focuses on the biological and physical aspects of illness, it completely defies the role of the society. Conclusion To conclude, there exist noticeable differences in the patterns of onset and prevalence of diseases across different societies. Medicine and health are the vital areas of sociological concentration, but to hurried global challenges, they are varying. The normality needs to be put into a meaningful context by geographical origin, gender, and the living conditions of the individual. Hence, there is an urgent need for change that can be brought about by evaluation of the sociological model of health. References Ayers, D. C., Franklin, P. D., & Ring, D. C. (2013). The role of emotional health in functional outcomes after orthopaedic surgery: extending the biopsychosocial model to orthopaedics: AOA critical issues. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume, 95(21). Burrell, G., & Morgan, G. (2017). Sociological paradigms and organisational analysis: Elements of the sociology of corporate life. Routledge. Bury, M. (2013). Health and illness in a changing society. Routledge. Campbell, W. H., & Rohrbaugh, R. M. (2013). The biopsychosocial formulation manual: A guide for mental health professionals. Routledge. Deacon, B. J. (2013). The biomedical model of mental disorder: A critical analysis of its validity, utility, and effects on psychotherapy research. Clinical psychology review, 33(7), 846-861. Halfon, N., Larson, K., Lu, M., Tullis, E., & Russ, S. (2014). Lifecourse health development: past, present and future. Maternal and child health journal, 18(2), 344-365. Kahn, R. S., & Keefe, R. S. (2013). Schizophrenia is a cognitive illness: time for a change in focus. JAMA psychiatry, 70(10), 1107-1112. Luhmann, N., Baecker, D., & Gilgen, P. (2013). Introduction to systems theory. Cambridge: Polity. Pilgrim, D. (2015). The biopsychosocial model in health research: its strengths and limitations for critical realists. Journal of Critical Realism, 14(2), 164-180. Ritzer, G., & Stepnisky, J. (2017). Modern sociological theory. SAGE Publications. Sarafino, E. P., & Smith, T. W. (2014). Health psychology: Biopsychosocial interactions. John Wiley & Sons. Smith, R. C., Fortin, A. H., Dwamena, F., & Frankel, R. M. (2013). An evidence-based patient-centered method makes the biopsychosocial model scientific. Patient education and counseling, 91(3), 265-270. Weiss, G. L., & Lonnquist, L. E. (2017). The sociology of health, healing, and illness. Routledge.

Basic features

  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support

On-demand options

  • Writer's samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading

Paper format

  • 275 words per page
  • 12pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, CHicago/Turabian, Havard)

Guaranteed originality

We guarantee 0% plagiarism! Our orders are custom made from scratch. Our team is dedicated to providing you academic papers with zero traces of plagiarism.

Affordable prices

We know how hard it is to pay the bills while being in college, which is why our rates are extremely affordable and within your budget. You will not find any other company that provides the same quality of work for such affordable prices.

Best experts

Our writer are the crème de la crème of the essay writing industry. They are highly qualified in their field of expertise and have extensive experience when it comes to research papers, term essays or any other academic assignment that you may be given!

Calculate the price of your order

You will get a personal manager and a discount.
We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:

Expert paper writers are just a few clicks away

Place an order in 3 easy steps. Takes less than 5 mins.

error: Content is protected !!
Open chat
How Can We Help You?
Affordable. Nursing. Papers Inc
Our Experts Are Online and Ready To Help You.