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USSKA3301 Human Anatomy And Physiology

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USSKA3301 Human Anatomy And Physiology Questions TAQ 1 1 Describe the structure and functions of bones. 2 Explain the relationship between the structure and function of the human skeleton. TAQ 2 1 Describe the classification of freely movable joints. 2 Examine and discuss the range of movement at different joints. TAQ 3 1 Analyse movements of joint actions during complex activities. 2 Describe the structure and functions of skeletal muscle. 3 Analyse movements at specific joints. TAQ 4 1 Discuss muscle consstraction in relation to movement. 2 Explore the relationship of antagonist pairs. Answers TAQ 1 1. Bones are living growing tissue that comprises important part of the skeleton. Bones consist of three types of cells namely osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts. Bones are composed of two types of tissues such as compact bone and cancellous bone. Concellous bones are the network of trabeculae or rod-like structures. In addition, bones have osteoid which is a mix of collagen and proteins, inorganic mineral salts, blood vessels, nerve, cartilage and membranes. The endosteum is the membrane lining the cavity of the bones. The peristeum is the tough and fibrous membrane surrounding the outer side of the bones at places where the articulatory cartilage do not cover them. The primary functions of the bones, making up the skeletal system are to store minerals, assist in movement, provide protection and support to vital organs and aid in movement by working with the ligament, tendons, skeletal muscles and joints .  Bones act as the framework for the body, and provide mechanical support for the internal organs of the body. Further, assistance is provided by the bones in movement as the muscles attached to the bones take part in movement. Bones further store important minerals such as phosphorous and calcium. Red bone marrow present within the larger bones is known to produce red blood cells. Yellow bone marrow within long bones act as chemical energy reserve(VanPutte, Regan, and Russo 2017). 2. The functions of the bones are primarily determined by their structures. Such can be observed through the variety in the sizes and shapes of bones and joints, which allows only certain types of movements, which in turn allows it to perform specific tasks. For example, the socket type joint of the femur bone allows greater angle of movement of the legs, but the joint at the knee only allows movement in one direction, like a hinge, which allows the ability to walk. Similarly, the structure of the vertebra and the ribs allows it to provide a protective covering for the spinal cord and the thoracic organs and the hollow chamber of the cranium allows the protection of the brain, while the perforations at the base of the cranium providing path for the passage of the cranial nerves. The relation between structure and function of the bones also can be found in the different types of ridges on the bones (such as the deltoid) which provides point of attachments for the muscles, ligaments and tendons (VanPutte, Regan, and Russo 2017). TAQ 2 1 and 2 Joint Joint Type Movement Range Hinge joint- The convex surface of one bone is found to fit on the concave surface of the other bone for permitting movement. Example- knee joint and interphalangeal joints. Synovial The movement is Uniaxial Pivot joint- these joints are composed of a bony pivot at the centre surrounding which a collar is present that consists of bone and ligament. Example- Atlantoaxial joint between atlas and axis. Synovial Unaxial movement and rotation is around a central axis Condyloid joint- These joints are modification of the ball and socket joints. Example- Metacarpophalangeal joint of fingers apart from thumb Synovial biaxial movement due to muscles and ligament Gliding joint- These joints are formed result of flat articular surface and siding of one bone over the other. Example- Clavicular joint Synovial multiaxial movement Saddle joint-. Both convex and concave areas are present at right angle to one another. Example- Carpometacarpal joint of thumb Synovial angular  movement Ball and socket joint- these joints are composed of head of one bone which is globe shaped, fitting into the cavity of another bone which is shaped like a cup. They are the most freely movable joints among others. Example- hip joints and shoulder. Synovial Multiaxial axial (Waugh and Grant 2014) TAQ 3 1. The action of the leg in running movement takes place in a sagittal plane about a frontal axis and the hip, knee and ankle joints is involved in it. In this regard, the bones of the hip that have an involvement are the femur and pelvic girdle which form a ball and socket joint. The knee bones such as the tibia and femur a hinge joint. The ankle bones that are involved are the calcaneus and tibia which form a modified joint. These mentioned joints are known to be producing two distinct actions. The first phase is the driving phase when there is contact of the leg with the ground and recovery phase is when there is no contact of the leg with the ground. The action carried out by the knee is extension. The quadriceps group of muscles is the agonist muscles working in this regard. The action carried out by the ankle is plantar flexion. 2. The arms and legs are swing in opposite pairs in sync at the time of running. The arms are pumped forward and backward in line with the movement direction. The swing of the arms is not across the body and the elbows point backwards. Further, the arms are in swing from the shoulder and not the elbows. The elbows are held at a 90 degree angle, and the angle of the elbow might be fluctuating in a slight manner at the time of the swing of the arm(VanPutte, Regan, and Russo 2017). 3. The main muscles and joints that are used while using a computer are the vertebrae for maintaining the posture. The main body movement takes place in the shoulder girdle, wrists and elbows. During sitting, the majority of the muscles and joints of the body are in an inactive state apart from the triceps and biceps. All muscles are in antagonistic pairs such as the bicep and tricep. For the movement of the arms, the tricep is relaxed and the bicep is contracted. As a result the arm is allowed to move in a free manner. The elbow is in flexion so that the hands can type in a comfortable manner. Wrist, fingers and knuckles are involved when the person is using a keyboard of the computer. The fingers are the metacarpus bones extending from the second row of carpal bones. A bone of such characteristics that is responsible for combining with the proximal phalanx for making up the carpometacarpal joint in the thumb, further contributing to the thumb movement. The fingers have three individual bones and joints that are capable of flexion and extension. Further, the movements primarily originate in the forearm (Waugh and Grant 2014). TAQ 4 1. Muscle contraction is a complex process that involves the activation of specific sites in a muscle fiber, as a result of which the length or the tension within the muscle changes. The contraction of certain muscles such as the skeletal muscles helps in locomotion, since these muscles are connected to the bones, and the muscular contraction leads to these bones being moved, thereby allowing locomotion. For example, contraction of the bicep muscle of the arm helps in the movement of the forearm towards the body, while contraction of the triceps helps to stretch the arm. Thus the bicep and triceps muscles work antagonistically to allow the movements of the hand or forearm (VanPutte, Regan, and Russo 2017. 2. The antagonist muscles are the one that are responsible for producing an opposing joint torque to the agonist muscles. The torque aids in the control of motion of the part of the body. The terms flexion refers to the bending movement in case of which the angle between the two parts is decreased. The muscles are the flexor muscles and the opposing muscle of a flexor is termed as extensor muscle. For each of these pairs, one muscle has the role of agonist while the other has the role of antagonist. The agonist undergoes contraction for causing the movement, while the antagonist relaxes to stretch (VanPutte, Regan, and Russo 2017). References VanPutte, C.L., Regan, J.L. and Russo, A., 2017. Seeley’s anatomy & physiology. McGraw-Hill Education. Waugh, A. and Grant, A., 2014. Ross & Wilson Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.

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