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ZAC102 Exploring Health And Wellbeing

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ZAC102 Exploring Health And Wellbeing Question: Social determinant of health discussed in the orientation lecture and search the contemporary health literature to identify relevant articles in relation to their chosen topic and the impact on health and well-being of people, families and/or communities. Using the chosen social determinant of health, in light of the relevant literature found, students should provide an introductory paragraph, which outlines what the paper will cover. Answer: Introduction: Social determinants of health are described as economics and social conditions that have an influence on individual or group at a population level. Social determinants have no definite meaning but they have similarities which it offers its description. World health Organization, (2011) has defined social determinants of health condition which people grow, live, work and grow old in. Social determinants include social gradients, stress (both home and work place), early childhood growth, unemployment, social support addiction of drugs , availability of healthy transport, religion, (Wilkinson, Richard & Marmat, 2007).  Studies conducted  have  established an association between lower socio-economic status, low education levels, poor housing infrastructure, low working conditions, inadequate Medicare and poor health status of the people, (Marmot, et al., 2011). Social determinants vary in the individual country context but majority share similarity index. WHO  conference in 2011, with participation of 125 states made a declaration on social health; that health inequities are unacceptable and the living conditions of people allows it to thrive, (WHO, 2011). There are no variations on social determinants, even the wealthy nations have social inequities in health care delivery and access. Health inequities occur in the context of health care, and thus health should be a common good rather than marketing tool, (CSDH, 2008). Relationships have been established including race, socio-economic statues and health outcomes of the people, the societal environment in which people grow in and live can be changed through socially acceptable ways and policy programs geared towards change, (Bermúdez, 2011). It is with this view that, this article is going to asses critically stress as a social determinant of health affecting a majority of population, (Sternthal & Williams 2010) . It is a silent disease as not all cases are diagnosed and reported. This paper will focus on the impacts stress has on the well being of the people, family and close contact people and community impact at large. Discussion Stress overview Stress commonly refers to psychological pressure and the body’s ability to respond to it. Its response elicits multiple techniques from metabolism to mental effort. The body functions in such a way to elicit either a flight or fight response. A stressful event always elicits a respond on the immune system triggering the adrenaline factor in the body. It mobilizes blood circulation in the body and initiates body’s response to stress. Stress has been a common day health issue affecting thousands of individuals worldwide, (Angela et al., 2011) . Stressful exposures in life like financial challenges, food insecurity and decreased social support have negative impacts on lives of individual people, (Braveman, et al., 2011). In the education sector, scholars have established a hypothesis on chronic stress and negative health outcomes amongst the population at large, (Gouin, 2011). Stress has effects on the physiology of people, thus establishing a direct relationship of it and health. High levels of stress has been associated with slight inflammation, slow wound healing, lower immune thus being soft target for diseases and poor response rate for the vaccination process, (Welbourn et al., 2009). However at an individual level coping styles have been enhanced with the use of social support, can be used as a remedy for chronic stress and health outcomes of the population affected. In further studies of physiology studies stress has been stated as to how the reacts to a situation. Short term stress affects organism for short duration while chronic stress have long lasting effects. With these studies stress has been explained in an elaborate stages; Stage 1 At this phase the body is resilient to changes such hypoglycaemia, hyponatremia and hypochloremia, at this level the body receives shock. At the anti shock phase, when the threat has been identified, the body prepares for defensive mechanism in respond to the state of the situation. The nervous  system is activated, the resulting effect is increased blood pressure, heavy muscularity  and increased glucose in the blood. Stage 2 It is characterised by production of compounds referred to as glucocorticoid, they increase the response rate. They increase body compounds such as glucose, fat amino acid or protein content  in the blood. In the situation that the stressing condition persists, the necessity dictates that other means of coping, the body will adapt to the changing environment it depletes its stored resources. Stage 4 It refers to either recovery or exhaustion face. Recovery when the  body has been able to overcome the stressor’s effect  or remove it completely. The compounds in the body like glucose, amino acids and blood level return to normal. At the exhaustion stage, the body’s compounds are depleted and it cannot function anymore and thus normal body function cannot be sustained anymore, the nervous system reacts sharply with increased heart rate, sweating among other changes, prolong vessels constriction of the blood cells leads to Ischemia, the body antibody function is critically impaired, resulting in decomposition. The ultimate result in all these stages will be manifestations of illness, such as ulcers, cardiovascular, depressions and even mental illness, which affects significantly person’s health status. Chronic stress Chronic stress combined with limited resources for coping techniques have led to advancement of physiological issues like state of delusions, anxiety disorders, depressions (Schlotz, 2011). The stressors often occur in longer duration of time, and may not be as acute and intense. Chronic stressors have more dilapidating effects on the health status due to its sustenance on the body as they need physiological support from the body. They consume energy from the body in order to be active.  Studies conducted have shown that caregivers in cases of dementia have increased depression levels and lower physical health compared to those who are not providing care, (Pinquar & Sörensent, 2006). Depressions and anxiety have shown to influence emergence of diseases which normally are not present. When under chronic stress, this could elicit permanent changes to the body and initiate diseases through emotional and behavioural effects. Chronic stress such as care for a spouse, are often long term and could have long term health effects on the caregiver. Psychological stress has been studied and shown that it has correlation on with coronary heart diseases. Chronic stress has had significant effects on the human body at large. Chronic stress has been found to have an effect on immunological effects in the body. Acute stressors have an impact on the regulation of natural immunity with increase and decrease in its regulation. Chronic diseases have had an impact on infectious diseases risks. It has elevated risk of upper respiratory tract infection and increase on stress among patients who are HIV positive. Chronic stress impact on chronic diseases cannot be neglected. Stress has been studied and found out to play a key role in hypertension and open up predisposition to other chronic diseases associated. In terms of developmental growth, chronic stress has an effect on normal growth among children by decreasing the growth and production of pituitary gland production hormone. In general growth development, i.e prenatal, infancy, childhood and adolescence ages, avoidance to stress plays a key role in the development process. Impact on individual Stress has an indirect impact on health statues; an individual victim is limited financially and develops psychosocial stress. Chronic stress has been observed majorly from those in the low social economic statues, who are having financial challenges in trying to manage the hustle and tussle of these life, (Tengland, 2012). These individual can lack emotional resources to engage in positive health behaviours, and thus lowering their health status. The way individuals cope a stress, may do harm or good for that individual. Coping behaviours adopted may have negative or positive consequences. Changes in self esteem, effect gives room to damaging effects of stress on individual capacity, mental status, stigma and discrimination. Improvement of social support reflects on the boost of self esteem. Studies have shown that people with high self esteem are able to utilised focussed coping strategies, which minimises stress, (Thoits, 2013). Impact on the family level The effect stress has on the family are tremendous, studies suggest that exposure to the family are linked to the underlying problems in adolescents and caregivers, stress from family functioning are used as indicators in depressive state among the youth, (Sheidow, 2014). Family units have shown to mediate stress from daily struggles of life and internalizing outcomes such as poor upbringing of children, poor family infrastructure, and low emoetional state and youth anxiety. Family units have shown depressive indicators among caregivers. Stress in the family can be a stressful event as it can bring negative and positive effects such as birth or death of next of kin’s in the family cycle, (Olson & Defrain, 2006). The response elicited from the family in responding to stress is quite unique and differ among family set ups.   As a key tool in stress management in families, the key breakthrough has been the use of effective communication. It is the process which various families establish an understanding of self and seek reconciliation. Family networks needs to allow for healthy and fruitful communication networks among the family members.  Families need to develop coping skills which enable them to cope with stress full events in the lives. As a family they need to start doing things as unit together this strengthens bonds. Building of self esteem in each other is key towards understanding one another. Family’s members need to show an appreciation to the rest in a mutual respect. When families manage stress, they take care of their physical and mental status. Another key aspect in the family is the development of social support within the community; studies have shown that families are able to endure hardships if they stick together as family and o avoid alienating themselves outside. Families need to lower the side effects of stressful situations by strengthening their support, able to pass communicate to the rest of the family members effectively. They need to have the heart of accepting each other’s feelings, concerns and ideas. Further development of problem solving skills assists in appreciating each other. Environmental related stress Job  related stress often goes silence and end up affecting majority of the people currently., when faced in a stressful situation , the body triggers a respond to act immediately, the nervous systems is aroused and gets ready for any eventuality. This response elicited a fight or flight responds, the respond is programmed automatically thus everyone responds at the same rate. Short lived stress full situations poses little risk, but failure for resolution, the mind is kept in the state of activation, ultimate concern that will arise is fatigue and damage on sensitive tissues. The body’s ability to manage this situation at times can be compromised, and as a result leads risk of injury or diseases occurrence in critical cases.. Previous studies have focussed at the relationship of job stress and illness conditions; there are other stress related factors which are linked to stress. They include stomach upsets, headache, frowzy relationships with family and friends in close contact. They can be early diagnosed. However job stress related to chronic diseases often goes undetected and are difficult to recognize and take long duration to recognize. Thus current evidence suggest that stress is  a key factor in several occurrence of chronic health problems like cardiovascular diseases, musculoskeletal disorders and psychological disorders. For employee staffs they often assume stress as necessary evils in their job tasks, in that they pile up pressure on staff and leave alone the health concerns that arise. Studies have shown stressful situations are link to absenteeism in job, workers intentions of job quitting among others. Recent studies have suggested policies that are of good benefit to the workers health, healthy organisations are those that have low incidences of diseases, illness, injury and disability. Stress dynamics Studies conducted across have found out that stress can be both positive and negative. The only variable available to gauge is the duration of stay and emotional condition it manifests, (Arnold. and Boggs., 2007). The health risks associated with stress include pain, bright light exposures, noise pollution and temperature rise, coupled with environmental factors such as air, health, water quality among others. Stress affects the social welfare of those around; they include social defeat, deceptions, deaths, marriages or even divorces. Life experiences have shown to have impact such as poverty levels, unemployment, alcoholic or insomnia can elevate stress levels, (Glavas & Weinberg, 2006). Workers and students can also encounter this as they are under pressure to perform. Exposure to hard development experience like prenatal exposure to develop maternal stress, (Davies et al., 2007)) sexual abuse especially at childhood is believed to reduce the ability to cope and later advance to stress. Managing stress In order to manage success fully issues of stress in a healthful manner, studies have been conducted on the importance of engaging in physical activities that inactivates the response of stress. Yoga exercises have been initiated to counteract this. Strenuous physical activity has been developed to try to alter the stress response behaviour. As the stress begins in the brain, research has focussed now on the basic method of diffusing away the stress. They have done so by changing or altering conditions those are by themselves stressful.  studies conducted have illustrated on how shifting attentions of the mind like passage of exams from physical activities offers a protective effect form negative effects of stressful situation while it gives you an opportunity for the observation of positive angle. In changing the focus of stress not only minimises stress level but it improves ability and functionality of the brain. Conclusions From the health perspective, health begins at our residence, workplace, neighbourhood and communities where we live, thus there is need to take of these ecosystems so as to shield ourselves from negative health of stress. Currently our health statues depend on access to social and economic avenues, resources available and support network available. There is need to improve on the status of our homes, workplace, access to food, water and living at peace, so as to bridge the gap available for health inequities. References  Bermúdez-Millán, A., Damio, G., Cruz, J., D’Angelo, K., Segura-Pérez, S., Hromi-Fiedler, A., & Pérez-Escamilla, R. (2011). Stress and the Social Determinants of Maternal Health among Puerto Rican Women: A CBPR Approach. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 22(4), 1315–1330. Braveman P, Marchi K, Egerter S, et al. Poverty, near-poverty, and hardship around the time of pregnancy. Matern Child Health J. (2010) Jan;14(1):20–35. Epub 2008 Nov 27. [PubMed] [Ref list] Commission on Social Determinants of Health (2008). Closing the Gap in a Generation: Health Equity Through Action on the Social Determinants of Health (PDF). World Health Organization. ISBN 978-92-4-156370-3. Retrieved 2013-03-27. Pg 2 Davis et al. (June 2007). Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Depression and Cortisol Influences Infant Temperament. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, v46 n6 p737.  Glavas, M.M.; Weinberg, J. (2006). “Stress, Alcohol Consumption, and the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis”. In Yehuda, S.; Mostofsky, D.I. Nutrients, Stress, and Medical Disorders. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. pp. 165–183. ISBN 978-1-58829-432-6. Gouin, J.-P. (2011). “Chronic Stress, Immune Dysregulation, and Health”. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine. 5 (6): 476–85. doi:10.1177/1559827610395467. Marmot M, Friel S, Bell R, et al.(2008) Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Lancet.  Nov 8;372(9650):1661–9. [PubMed] [Ref list] Olson, D., & DeFrain, J. (2006). Marriages & Families: Intimacy, diversity and strengths. New York: McGraw-Hill Pinquart M.; Sörensen S. (2003). “Differences between caregivers and noncaregivers in psychological health and physical health: a meta-analysis”. Psychology and aging. 18 (2): 250–267. doi:10.1037/0882-7974.18.2.250. Schlotz W, Yim IS, Zoccola PM, Jansen L, Schulz P (2011). The perceived stress reactivity scale: Measurement invariance, stability, and validity in three countries. Psychol Assess. (pp. 80–94). Sheidow, A. J., Henry, D. B., Tolan, P. H., & Strachan, M. K. (2014). The role of stress exposure and family functioning in internalizing outcomes of urban families. Journal of child and family studies, 23(8), 1351-1365. Tengland, P.-A. (2012). “Behavior Change or Empowerment: On the Ethics of Health-Promotion Strategies”. Public Health Ethics. 5 (2): 140–53. doi:10.1093/phe/phs022. Thoits, P. A. (2013). Self, identity, stress, and mental health. In Handbook of the sociology of mental health (pp. 357-377). Springer Netherlands. Walburn, Jessica; Vedhara, Kavita; Hankins, Matthew; Rixon, Lorna; Weinman, John (2009). “Psychological stress and wound healing in humans: A systematic review and meta-analysis”. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 67 (3): 253–71. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2009.04.002. PMID 19686881. Wilkinson, Richard; Marmot, Michael, eds. (2007). The Social Determinants of Health: The Solid Facts (PDF) (2nd ed.). World Health Organization Europe. ISBN 978-92-890-1371-0.[page needed Williams DR, Sternthal M. (2010) Understanding racial-ethnic disparities in health: sociological contributions. J Health Soc Behav. ;51(Suppl):S15–27. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Ref list] World Conference on Social Determinants of Health (2011). “Rio Political Declaration on Social Determinants of Health” (PDF). World Health Organization. Retrieved 2017-04-16.]

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